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Copenhagen (IPA /'ko?p?nhe?g?n/ or /'ko?p?nh??g?n/; Danish: København (Relating to this sound pay attention)) could be the funds of Denmark and its most populous metropolis, with the city inhabitants of one,213,822 (as of 1 January 2012) along with a metropolitan populace of one,947,944 (as of 1 October 2012). While using the completion of your transnational Øresund Bridge in 2000, Copenhagen has become the centre in the significantly integrated Øresund Location. İnside of this area, Copenhagen plus the Swedish metropolis of Malmö are rising right into a combined metropolitan area. Copenhagen is positioned for the islands of Zealand and Amager.
Copenhagen became the cash of Denmark during the commencing in the fifteenth century, whilst becoming documented as a result for the reason that 11th century. All through the seventeenth century, below the reign of Christian IV, it grew to become a significant regional centre.
Copenhagen can be a key regional heart of culture, company, media, and science, as indicated by a number of intercontinental surveys and rankings (see International rankings listed below). Lifestyle science, details technological innovation and shipping are essential sectors, and analysis & development plays a significant role from the city's economy. Its strategic location and excellent infrastructure, while using the largest airport in Scandinavia, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, located 14 minutes by train from the metropolis centre, have made it a regional hub and also a popular location for regional headquarters and conventions.
Copenhagen has repeatedly been recognized as one in the cities with the best quality of everyday living. It is also considered one from the world's most environmentally friendly cities. The water in the inner harbour is clean and safe for swimming. 36% of all citizens commute to work by bicycle. Every day, they cycle a put together 1.2 million km.
Since the turn from the millennium, Copenhagen has seen a strong city and cultural development. This is partly due to massive investments in cultural facilities as well as infrastructure and also a new wave of successful designers, chefs and architects
Copenhagen's founding has traditionally been dated to Bishop Absalon's construction of a castle on the small island of Slotsholmen in 1167 where Christiansborg Palace stands today. Recent archaeological finds indicate that by the eleventh century, Copenhagen had already grown right into a small town with a large estate, a church, a market, at least two wells and many smaller habitations spread over a fairly wide area. Many historians believe that the town dates to the late Viking age, and was possibly founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard. From the middle with the 12th century it grew in importance, after coming into Absalon's possession, who fortified it in 1167, the year traditionally marking the foundation of Copenhagen. The excellent harbour encouraged Copenhagen's growth until it turned an essential centre of commerce. However it did not turn out to be the nation's cash until the middle in the fifteenth century, as well as archbishop still has residence in Roskilde.
The city's origin as a harbour in addition to a place of commerce is reflected in its name. Its original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name is derived, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning "merchants' harbour". The English cognate would be Chapman's haven. The English name for the metropolis is derived from its Low German name, Kopenhagen. The element hafnium is also named for Copenhagen, whose Latin name is Hafnia, derived from the city's original name, Hafnæ ("harbour"). The bacterium Hafnia is also named after Copenhagen, getting coined in 1954 by Vagn Møller of the Statens Seruminstitut in Copenhagen.
As the town rose in prominence, it was repeatedly attacked by the Hanseatic League. In 1254 it received its charter as a town under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen. Throughout 1658-59 it withstood a siege by the Swedes less than Charles X and successfully repelled an essential assault. In 1711 the plague reduced Copenhagen's populace of about 65,000 by one-third.
On 2 April 1801 a British fleet below the command of Admiral Sir Hyde Parker defeated a Danish-Norwegian fleet anchored near Copenhagen. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack. He famously disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw, destroying many of your Dano-Norwegian ships before a truce was agreed. Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought battle, surpassing even the heavy fighting at Trafalgar. It was during this battle that Lord Nelson famously "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire.
The Second Battle of Copenhagen (or the Bombardment of Copenhagen) (16 August - 5 September 1807) was from a British point of view a preemptive attack on Copenhagen, targeting the civilian populace in order to seize the Dano-Norwegian fleet. But from a Danish point of view the battle was a terror bombardment on their funds. Particularly notable was the use of incendiary Congreve rockets (containing phosphorus, which cannot be extinguished with water) that randomly hit the city. Few houses with straw roofs remained after the bombardment. The largest church, Vor frue kirke, was destroyed by the sea artillery. Numerous historians consider this battle was the first terror attack against a serious European town in modern times. The confiscation from the navy, would later source the term to Copenhagenize.
Slotsholmen canal, as seen from Børsen (1890-1900). In the background from left to right: Church of the Holy Ghost, Rundetårn, Trinity Church, St. Nicholas Church (before the spire was rebuilt) and Holmen Church.
The British landed 30,000 men and surrounded Copenhagen. The attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2,000 civilians and destroying most of your town. The devastation was so great because Copenhagen relied on an old defence-line whose limited range could not reach the British ships and their longer-range artillery. Not until the 1850s were the ramparts on the metropolis opened to allow new housing to be built around The Lakes (Danish: Søerne) that bordered the old defences to the west. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, because the old ramparts were out of date as a defence system, and because of bad sanitation from the old city. Before the opening, central Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 125,000 people, peaking inside the census of 1870 (140,000); today the figure is around 25,000. In 1901, Copenhagen expanded further, incorporating communities with 40,000 people, and inside the process making Frederiksberg an enclave inside of Copenhagen.
Through World War II, Copenhagen was occupied by German troops along along with the rest of the country from 9 April 1940 until 4 May 1945. The occupation was not a part on the Nazi German expansion, and in the first years German authorities wanted a kind of understanding using the Danish government. Even a general parliamentary election was granted in 1943, with only the Communist Party excluded. But in August 1943, when the government's collaboration along with the occupation forces collapsed, numerous ships were scuttled in Copenhagen Harbour by the Royal Danish Navy to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jews, although many managed to escape to Sweden.
After the Normandy invasion the Germans feared that the Danish police could develop into a problem, and in early September 1944 the entire Danish police force was meant to be arrested. But a majority of your Danish police managed to either hide or escape to Sweden. Out of 2,000 policemen captured and deported to Germany fewer than half returned after the war. Throughout the last eight months of occupation Copenhagen suffered a high rate of common criminality.
Ole Lippman, the leader on the Danish resistance movement (SOE), asked for RAF assistance in attacking Nazi headquarters in Copenhagen. Accordingly, vice Air Marshall Sir Basil Embry drew the plans for a spectacular precision attack for the SD and Gestapo building, the former office of the Shell Oil Company. Political prisoners were kept from the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels in the building. The attack came on 22 March 1945, coming in three small waves. All six planes (carrying one bomb each) inside the first wave hit their target, but unfortunately one from the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg girls school. Due to this crash four of your planes inside the two following waves assumed the school was the target, and aimed their bombs at the school. 123 civilians (of which 87 were young girls) were killed. However from the Shell-building, 18 of a total of 26 political prisoners managed to escape, the Gestapo archives were completely destroyed, and Hitler became so insecure of the situation that he withdrew only half with the roughly 200,000 soldiers in Denmark to reinforce German forces within the Rhine.
For the reason that summer of 2000, Copenhagen plus the Swedish town of Malmö have been connected by a toll bridge/tunnel (Øresund Bridge), which carries railroad and automobile traffic. As a result, Copenhagen has become the centre of a larger metropolitan space which spans both nations. The construction from the bridge has led to many changes to the public transport system and extensive redevelopment of Amager, south of Copenhagen.
In December 2009 Copenhagen hosted the worldwide climate meeting COP15. When US President Barack Obama participated within the end of this meeting it was the fourth time an American President had visited Copenhagen in the course of his term (Obama also visited Copenhagen in Oct 2009, George W. Bush in 2005 and Bill Clinton during the 1990s).
Satellite image showing Copenhagen located on Zealand and Amager.
Amager Square seen from St. Nicholas Church
Copenhagen is located on the eastern shore of your island of Zealand, partly around the island of Amager and on a number of natural and artificial islets between the two. Copenhagen faces the Øresund to the east, the strait of water that separates Denmark from Sweden, and which connects the North Sea along with the Baltic Sea. The Swedish towns of Malmö and Landskrona lie for the Swedish side on the sound directly across from Copenhagen.
Copenhagen is part of the Øresund area, which consists of Zealand, Lolland-Falster and Bornholm in Denmark and Scania in Sweden.
Copenhagen Municipality is an administrative unit which covers the central part on the actual metropolis of Copenhagen. It is usually a fairly small part with the actual town which falls within the municipality both because it covers a confined region and because the enclave of Frederiksberg is an independent municipality. Because a reform in 2006-08, Copenhagen is divided into 10 official districts (Danish: bydele)
The suffix -bro from the names Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro should not be confused along with the Danish word for bridge, which is also 'bro'. The term is thought to be an abbreviation or short form from the Danish word brolagt meaning paved referring to the roads paved with cobblestones leading to the city's former gates. Today the Frederiksberg enclave, whilst not part of your Copenhagen municipality (and so administratively independent), is considered to be part from the city of Copenhagen. Frederiksberg grew to become an enclave in 1901 when the former districts of Vanløse and Valby were incorporated to Copenhagen municipality. Due to the fact 1902 no further incorporations has been made to the municipality.
The highest population density is no longer found within the city centre ("Indre by", which means Inner town) due to office buildings, department stores and council buildings, etc. The highest population density is instead found during the districts immediately surrounding the metropolis centre, where there can be a density of 15,000 inhabitants per km2. For example, the entirety in the Nørrebro district, central Østerbro district,.
The lowest populace density in the municipality exists in a part with the Amager Vest district. At the western coast on the island of Amager a large place was embanked from the shallow strait of Kalveboderne in the 1930s. The main reason was to provide an occupation for unemployed workers through the Great Depression. As the region was later used as a military training location, the ground contains much unexploded ammunition which has hampered urban development. In the 1980s most on the embankment was declared a nature reserve and thus remains uninhabited, although a part now makes up the Ørestad quarter. Also, a golf course has been established a few kilometres from the town centre.
The region of Copenhagen has also grown in other places as a result of land reclamation. Thus, all with the present and former harbour areas were gained from the sea, and on eastern Amager, a new beach park with the artificial island was opened in 2008.
Further information: Urban space of Copenhagen
Greater Copenhagen in Denmark
The conurbation of Copenhagen consists of many municipalities. After Copenhagen Municipality, the second largest is Frederiksberg Municipality, an enclave inside Copenhagen Municipality. Both are contained from the larger Capital Region of Denmark, containing most from the city location of Copenhagen. However Danish road authority (Vejdirektoratet) still uses the name Greater Copenhagen (Storkøbenhavn). This place had around 1.45 million inhabitants within the mid 1990s.
Previously, the areas of Frederiksberg, Gentofte and Copenhagen municipalities have been used to define the city of Copenhagen. This definition is now obsolete. To meet statistical needs upon the latest municipal reform, which took place in early 2007, a definitory concept of Danish lands (Danish: landsdele) was introduced. A land is basically a geographical and statistical definition, and also the area is not considered to be an administrative unit. The land of Copenhagen City includes the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør, Frederiksberg and Tårnby, with a total populace of 704,108 at the start of 2012.
Copenhagen and Frederiksberg were two from the three last Danish municipalities not belonging to a county. On 1 January 2007, the municipalities lost their county privileges and grew to become part of your Copenhagen Capital Location.
Suburban Copenhagen (or the Copenhagen metropolitan region) is planned according to the Finger Plan (Danish: Fingerplanen), initiated in 1947, dividing the suburbs into five fingers. The S-train lines are built according to the Finger Plan, whilst green wedges and highways are built between the fingers.
Snowy Copenhagen scene
Copenhagen is in the oceanic climate zone. As the city is while in the path of Atlantic low-pressure systems, Copenhagen experiences unstable and changing weather patterns in all four seasons, as well as temperatures about 5 degrees higher than average for its latitude (55 degrees North) worldwide. The main reason for this warmth would be the Atlantic Gulf Stream, which moves warm water from around the Gulf Coast space toward Europe, and also the low-pressure systems follow together with the oceanic stream.
Precipitation is moderate throughout the year, with a small peak in the course of June to August. Snowfall occurs mainly from late December until early March, but snow cover seldom lasts long. Rain for the duration of January and February is as common as snow, along with the average temperatures for these two winter months is near the freezing point.
During winter, the weather is dependent on which latitude the Atlantic low pressure centre takes. With a stable high-pressure system around the Alps, the low pressure from the southwest moves toward southern Scandinavia and northern Germany, producing above-freezing temperatures day and night. When a stable high-pressure system sits over Denmark or the lands to the northeast (these kinds of as Finland or Russia), the mild Atlantic winds from the southwest are blocked, allowing polar winds to cover the location, plus the temperature dips to beneath freezing (rarely beneath -5 °C (23 °F) during the day and -12 °C (10 °F) in the course of the night). If the European continent experiences cold due to the eastern Russian winds, which rarely occurs, it can "freeze from the south". This was a phenomenon that took various centuries to understand.
Spring is comparable to continental Europe, but delayed about a week because on the cold surrounding water. For the other hand, in late autumn Copenhagen is kept milder due to the same factor, but reversed. In late November and December the surrounding ocean water is generally warmer than the air. From mid-October to February, one or two storms occur. Storms during the summertime are rare.
Summer is usually a mixture of southwestern mild, windy and rainy low-pressure systems, and periods of stable high pressures. In summer, high-pressure systems usually bring sunny and fairly warm weather. But these warm periods, which can occur any time from late April until mid September, usually last no longer than ten days.
The city's appearance today is shaped by the key role it has played as a regional centre for centuries. Copenhagen has a multitude of districts, each representing its time and with its own distinctive character, making up a dense urban fabric. Other distinctive features of Copenhagen include the abundance of water, the many parks, as well as the bicycle paths that line most streets.
See also: Architecture in Copenhagen and List of buildings in and around Copenhagen
Amalienborg Palace as well as the Marble Church seen with all the Amalie Garden inside the foreground.
The oldest section of Copenhagen's inner metropolis is often referred to as "Middelalderbyen" (The Medieval Town). However, the most distinctive district of Copenhagen is Frederiksstaden developed in the course of the reign of Frederick V. It has Amalienborg Palace at its centre and is dominated by the dome of Frederik's Church (The Marble Church) and various elegant 18th century mansions. The old inner city of Copenhagen includes the small island of Slotsholmen with Christiansborg Palace and Christianshavn. Around the historical town centre lies a band of congenial residential bouroughs (Vesterbro, Inner Nørrebro, Inner Østerbro) dating mainly from late 19th century. They were built outside the old ramparts with the city when the town was finally allowed to expand beyond this barrier.
Sometimes referred to as "the Town of Spires", Copenhagen is known for its horizontal skyline, only broken by spires at churches and castles. Most characteristic would be the baroque spire of Church of Our Saviour with its spiralling and narrowing external stairs that visitors can climb to the very top on the spire. Other significant spires are those of Christiansborg Palace, the Metropolis Hall and also the former Church of St. Nikolaj that now houses a modern art venue. A bit lower are the renaissance spires of Rosenborg Castle as well as "dragon spire" of Christian IV's former stock exchange, so named because it resembles the tails of four dragons twined together.
Developing skyline in the district Ørestad, located in the outskirts of Copenhagen. 12 towers expected to form the final skyline.
Recent years have seen a boom in modern architecture in Copenhagen both when it comes to Danish architecture and works by international architects. For a few hundred years, virtually no foreign architects had worked in Copenhagen but for the reason that turn in the millennium the metropolis and its immediate sourroundings have seen buildings and projects from international star architects. In the same time, a number of Danish architects have achieved success in Copenhagen and abroad. Buildings in Copenhagen have won RIBA European Awards four years in a row ("Sampension" in 2005, "Kilen" in 2006, "Tietgenkollegiet" in 2007 as well as Royal Playhouse in 2008.) The last three mentioned projects are all by Lundgaard & Tranberg Architects. At the 2008 World Architecture Festival in Barcelona, Bjarke Ingels Group won an award for the World's Best Residential Building 2008 for a house in Ørestad. The Forum AID Award for Best building in Scandinavia went to Copenhagen buildings both in 2006 and 2008. In 2008 British design magazine Monocle named Copenhagen the World's best design town 2008.
The boom in city development and modern architecture has brought some changes to the city's skyline. A political majority has decided to keep the historical centre free of high-rise buildings, but various areas will see or have already seen massive urban development. Ørestad now has seen most with the recent development. Located near Copenhagen Airport, it currently boasts one with the largest malls in Scandinavia and a variety of office and residential buildings as well as IT University and a high school. The two largest hotels in Scandinavia are currently under construction (ultimo 2008).
The 2004 Copenhagen Opera House by Henning Larsen
An ambitious regeneration project will create a new Carlsberg District at the historical premises with the Carlsberg Breweries that has terminated the production of beer in Copenhagen and moved it to Fredericia. The district will have a total of nine high-rise buildings and seeks to mix the old industrial buildings with modern architecture to create a dense, maze-like quarter with a focus on sustainability and an active city lifetime. A third significant region of city development also with a focus on sustainability is Nordhavn. The Copenhagen tradition with urban development on artificial islands that was initiated with Christian IV's construction of Christianshavn has recently been continued with all the creation of Havneholmen as well as a canal district at Sluseholmen in the South Harbour. A district in Copenhagen with a different take on modern architecture is that of Christiania whose many creative and idiosyncratic buildings are exponents of an "architecture without architects".
Main article: Parks and open spaces in Copenhagen
Copenhagen is a green city with many big and small parks. King's Garden, the garden of Rosenborg Castle, may be the oldest and most visited park in Copenhagen. Its landscaping was commenced by Christian IV in 1606. Every year it sees more than 2.5 million visitors and inside the summer months it is packed with sunbathers, picnickers and ballplayers. It serves as a sculpture garden with a permanent display of sculptures as well as temporary exhibits throughout summer. Also located from the city centre are the Botanical Gardens particularly noted for their large complex of 19th century greenhouses donated by Carlsberg founder J. C. Jacobsen. Fælledparken is at 58 hectares the largest park in Copenhagen. It is popular for sports and hosts quite a few annual events these as a free opera concert at the opening of your opera season, other open-air concerts, carnival, Labour Day celebrations and Copenhagen Historic Grand Prix, which is really a race for antique cars. A historical green space in the northeastern part with the town is Kastellet, a well-preserved renaissance citadel that now serves mainly as a park. Another popular park is definitely the Frederiksberg Garden, a 32-hectare romantic landscape park. It houses a colony of tame grey herons and other waterfowl. The park offers views on the elephants plus the elephant house designed by world-famous British architect Norman Foster of your adjacent Copenhagen Zoo, the largest zoo in Denmark. Langelinie, a park and promenade along the inner Øresund coast, is home to one of Copenhagen's most-visited tourist attractions, the Little Mermaid statue.
In Copenhagen, many cemeteries double as parks, though only for the more quiet activities these as sunbathing, reading and meditation. Assistens Cemetery, the burial place of Hans Christian Andersen, is an essential green space for the district of Inner Nørrebro as well as a Copenhagen institution. The lesser known Vestre Kirkegaard could be the largest (54 hectares) cemetery in Denmark and offers a maze of dense groves, open lawns, winding paths, hedges, overgrown tombs, monuments, tree-lined avenues, lakes and other garden features.
It is official municipal policy in Copenhagen that all citizens by 2015 must be able to reach a park or beach on foot in less than 15 minutes. In line with this policy, many new parks, including the innovative Superkilen, have been completed or are beneath development in areas lacking green spaces.
Copenhagen along with the surrounding areas have 3 beaches with a total of approx. 8 km of sandy beaches inside 30 minutes cycling from the metropolis centre. This includes Amager Strandpark, which opened in 2005 and includes a 2 km long artificial island and a total of 4.6 km of beaches, located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the town centre.
The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths along the Copenhagen waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge and has won international acclaim for its design.
As of 2012, 77.8% of Copenhagen's population is Danish, 7.5% are immigrants from Western countries and 14.6% of a non-Western background.
The Sluseholmen Canal District
Depending around the boundaries used, the population of Copenhagen differs. Statistics Denmark uses a measure of the contiguously built-up urban spot of Copenhagen, this means the number of communities included in this statistical abstract has changed a number of times, in the abstracts latest edition with about one.21 million (one,213,822 (2012)) inhabitants. This number is not a strict result from the commonly used measuring methods of 200 meters of continuously build-up place, as there are exceptions to the general rule: The suburbs of Birkerød and Hørsholm are excluded, although all of Brøndby and parts of Ishøj and Greve are included. Statistics Denmark has never stated the geographical location of city Copenhagen. However, we know it consists of Copenhagen Municipality, Frederiksberg and 16 of the 20 municipalities while in the old counties Copenhagen and Roskilde, though 5 of them only partially.
Statistics Denmark has worked out definitions of so-called lands (landsdele), a definition used to meet statistical needs on a lower level than regions. From this, the land of Copenhagen town (København by) is defined by the municipalities of Copenhagen, Dragør, Frederiksberg and Tårnby, with a total populace of 707,591 as of one July 2012. The surroundings of Copenhagen is defined by another land, Copenhagen suburban (Københavns omegn), which includes the municipalities of Albertslund, Ballerup, Brøndby, Gentofte, Gladsaxe, Glostrup, Herlev, Hvidovre, Høje-Taastrup, Ishøj, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Rødovre and Vallensbæk, and with a total inhabitants of 522,768 (one July 2012). This gives a total inhabitants of 1,230,359 for these two lands together. The lands of Copenhagen metropolis and Copenhagen suburban can together be used as a definition of the metropolitan region, although an extremely narrow one not even containing all of the urban spot.
Based on a 10%-isoline (data from 2002) in which at least 10% commutes into central parts of the Copenhagen spot, most of Zealand would be covered and this location has a inhabitants of about 2.3 million inhabitants.
Considering that the opening with the Øresund Bridge in 2000 commuting between and integration of Greater Malmö and Copenhagen have increased rapidly, and also a put together statistical metropolitan place has formed. This Copenhagen-Malmö metropolitan spot has a populace of 2,603,174 inhabitants (1 July 2012).
A high-ranking civil servant on the Interior Ministry, Henning Strøm, who was involved in (i.e. known as "the Father of") a past municipal reform, which took effect on 1 April 1970, said on television, broadcast in connection with all the recent Kommunalreformen ("The Municipal Reform" of 2007), that Copenhagen municipality would encompass an region with 1.5 million inhabitants, if the principles on the 1970 municipal reform were also applied on Copenhagen municipality. In other words: within the rest of Denmark the metropolis occupies only part of your municipality, but in Copenhagen the municipality of Copenhagen occupies only part of the metropolis of Copenhagen.
Customs and recreation
The statue in the Little Mermaid, an icon from the metropolis and a popular tourist attraction.
Apart from remaining the national funds, Copenhagen also serves as the cultural hub of Denmark and wider Scandinavia. Considering that the late 1990s, Copenhagen has undergone a transformation from a small Scandinavian money to a metropolitan metropolis of worldwide scope in the league of cities like Barcelona and Amsterdam. This is due to massive investments in infrastructure as well as way of life and also a wave of new successful Danish architects, designers and chefs. As with the rest of Denmark the inhabitants of Copenhagen tend to be happy.
Copenhagen has one with the highest number of restaurants and bars per capita in the world. The nightclubs stay open until 5 or 6 within the morning, some even longer. There are plenty of different places in Copenhagen which offer a good night out. Especially the inner city, Istedgade and Enghave Plads in Vesterbro, Sankt Hans Torv in Nørrebro and certain places in Frederiksberg are very vibrant and full of existence even during the late hours. Denmark has a very liberal alcohol customs and also a strong tradition for beer breweries.
See also: List of museums in and around Copenhagen
Copenhagen has a wide array of museums of International standard. The National Museum, Nationalmuseet, is Denmark's largest museum of Archaeology and cultural history, comprising the histories of Danish and foreign cultures alike. The National Gallery - "Statens Museum for Kunst" - is Denmark's national art museum and contains collections dating from 12th century and all the way up to present day artists. Among artists represented while in the collections are Rubens, Rembrandt, Picasso, Braque, Léger, Matisse, Emil Nolde, Olafur Eliasson, Elmgreen and Dragset, Superflex and Jens Haaning.
Another crucial Copenhagen art museum will be the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek founded by second generation Carlsberg tycoon-philanthropist Carl Jacobsen and is built around his personal collections. Its main focus is classical Egyptian, Roman and Greek sculptures and other antiquities along with a collection of Rodin sculptures that could be the largest outside France (Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve and theke, a storing-place). Besides its sculpture collections, the Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek also holds a comprehensive collection of paintings of impressionist and post-impressionist painters these as Monet, Renoir, Cézanne, van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec as well as Danish Golden Age painters.
Louisiana is usually a museum of modern art positioned for the coast just north of Copenhagen. It is located inside the middle of a sculpture garden on a cliff overlooking Øresund. The museum is included during the Patricia Schultz book 1,000 Places to See Before You Die. The Danish Museum of Art & Design is housed inside the 18th century former Frederiks Hospital and displays Danish design as well as intercontinental design and crafts.
Other museums include:
Thorvaldsens Museum is a single-artist museum dedicated to the oeuvre of romantic Danish sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen who lived and worked in Rome.
Cisternerne is often a small but different museum dedicated to modern glass art. It is located in some grotto-like former cisterns that come complete with Stalactites formed by the changing water levels.
The Ordrupgaard Museum is an art museum located just north of Copenhagen in an old mansion with an extension by Iraqi-British architect Zaha Hadid. It features 19th century French and Danish art and is particularly noted for its works by Paul Gaugin.
Royal Playhouse (left) and Copenhagen Opera House (background, right).
The new Copenhagen Concert Hall opened in January 2009. It is designed by Jean Nouvel and has four halls along with the main auditorium seating 1800 people. It serves as the home of the Danish National Symphony Orchestra and along with all the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles will be the most expensive concert hall ever built. Another crucial venue for classical music could be the Tivoli Concert Hall located within the historical Tivoli Gardens. The Copenhagen Opera House (in Danish usually called Operaen) that opened in 2005 and is designed by Henning Larsen, could be the national opera house of Denmark and among the most modern opera houses while in the world. The old Royal Danish Theatre dating from 1748 still works as a supplementary opera scene. The Royal Danish Theatre is also home to the Royal Danish Ballet. Founded in 1748 along with the theatre, it is one on the oldest ballet troupes in Europe. It is home to the Bournonville style of ballet.
Tycho Brahe Planetarium & IMAX
The Royal Danish Theatre
Copenhagen has a big jazz scene that has existed for many years. It developed when a number of American jazz musicians such as Ben Webster, Thad Jones, Richard Boone, Ernie Wilkins, Kenny Drew, Ed Thigpen, Bob Rockwell, Dexter Gordon, and others such as rock guitarist Link Wray came to live in Copenhagen for the duration of the 1960s. Every year in early July Copenhagen's streets, squares and parks fill up with big and small jazz concerts for the duration of the Copenhagen Jazz Festival (see yearly events).
The biggest venue for popular music in Copenhagen is Vega in Vesterbro district which has been chosen as "best concert venue in Europe" by worldwide music magazine Live This venue has three concert halls. The great hall, Store VEGA, has a capacity for 1.550 guests, the middle hall, Lille VEGA, has space for 500 people and Ideal Bar Live has a capacity for 250 guests. Yearly in September the Festival of Endless Gratitude (FOEG) takes place in Copenhagen given that 2006. This festival focuses on indie counterculture, experimental pop music en left field music mixed with visual arts exhibitions.
For free entertainment one can stroll along Strøget, especially between Nytorv and Højbro Plads, which during the late afternoon and evening is really a bit like an impromptu three-ring circus with musicians, magicians, jugglers and other street performers.
Copenhagen has a wide variety of sport teams. The main football teams are F.C. Copenhagen and Brøndby. FC København plays at Parken in Østerbro, Copenhagen, but FCK is actually a merger of two suburban teams, B 1903 (from the suburb Gentofte) and KB (from Frederiksberg). BK Frem are based from the southern part of urban Copenhagen (Sydhavnen, Valby). Other teams are Fremad Amager, B93, AB, Frem, Lyngby and Hvidovre IF.
Copenhagen also has multiple ice hockey teams, of which three are playing during the top league, AL-Bank Ligaen, namely Rødovre Mighty Bulls, Herlev Eagles and Hvidovre Ligahockey.
World ranked no.2, Peter Gade, is one with the world's best global badminton players.
There are a lot of handball teams in Copenhagen. FC København owns both a women's plus a men's team, which have the same name and logo. They were formerly known as FIF. Of other clubs playing within the "highest" leagues there are; Ajax Heroes, Ydun, and HIK (Hellerup).
Rugby union is also played within the Danish money with teams these as CSR-Nanok, Copenhagen Business enterprise School Sport Rugby and Rugbyklubben Speed. Rugby League is now played in Copenhagen, together with the national team playing out of Gentofte Stadion. The Danish Australian Football League, based in Copenhagen may be the largest Australian rules football competition outside in the English speaking world.
In 2011 Copenhagen hosted the UCI Road World Championships.
Built in 1874 the Pantomime Theatre is the oldest building while in the Tivoli Gardens
Copenhagen has the two oldest amusement parks from the World.
The Tivoli Gardens is an amusement park and pleasure garden located in central Copenhagen between the City Hall Square and Copenhagen Central Station. Among its rides are the oldest still operating roller coaster and the oldest ferris wheel from the World. It also functions as an open-air concert venue. It opened on 15 August 1843 making it the second oldest amusement park while in the world.
Dyrehavsbakken (in English "the Deer Garden Hill") is located in Klampenborg a little north of Copenhagen in a forested area known as dyrehaven. Having been made into an amusement park complete with rides, games and restaurants by Christian IV, it would be the oldest surviving amusement park while in the World. At "Bakken" (unlike Tivoli) entrance is free.
For a broader look at this topic, see Danish cuisine.
As of 2012, Copenhagen has 13 Michelin star restaurants, the most of any Scandinavian town. The city is significantly recognized internationally as a gourmet destination. Apart from the selection of upmarket restaurants, Copenhagen offers a great variety of Danish, worldwide and ethnic restaurants. It is possible to find modest eateries serving open sandwiches ("smørrebrød") - the traditional and best known Danish lunch dish; however, most restaurants serve intercontinental dishes. Another local specialty, Danish pastry, can be sampled from any of numerous bakeries found in all parts of the city. The restaurant Noma (short for Danish: nordisk mad, English: Nordic food) was ranked as the Best Restaurant inside the World by Restaurant in 2010, 2011 and 2012.
Copenhagen has long been associated with beer. Carlsberg beer has been brewed at the brewery's premises at the border between Vesterbro and Valby districts considering the fact that 1847 and has long been almost synonymous with Danish beer production. However, recent years have seen an explosive growth within the number of microbreweries so that Denmark today has more than 100 breweries, many of which are located in Copenhagen. Some like Nørrebro Bryghus also act as brewpubs where it is also possible to eat at the premises.
Many Danish press corporations are located in Copenhagen. DR, the important Danish public service broadcasting corporation collected their activities in a new headquarters, DR byen, in 2006 and 2007. Similarly has Odense based TV2 collected its Copenhagen activities in a modern press house during the Teglholmen. The two national daily newspapers Politiken and Berlingske Tidende as well as two tabloids Ekstra Bladet and B.T. are based in Copenhagen. Other important mass media corporations include Aller Press which would be the largest publisher of weekly and monthly magazines in Scandinavia, the Egmont mass media group and Gyldendal, the largest Danish publisher of books.
Copenhagen also has a sizable movie and television industry. Filmbyen, The Movie Town, which is located in a former military camp in the suburb of Hvidovre and houses several movie companies and studio studios. Among the movie companies are Zentropa co-owned by Danish movie director Lars von Trier who is behind various intercontinental movie productions as well as a founding force behind the Dogma Movement.
Roskilde Festival is actually a music festival held every year in Roskilde west of Copenhagen. Gathering around 130,000 people every year, it is one of your six largest music festivals in Europe.
Copenhagen Marathon, Copenhagen's annual marathon event.
Copenhagen Pride, an annual gay pride festival taking place every year in August
Copenhagen Fashion Week takes place every year in February and August. It will be the largest fashion event in Northern Europe.
Copenhagen Carnival takes place every year since 1982 throughout the Whitsun Holiday in Fælledparken and around the town. 120 bands, 2000 dancers and 100,000 spectators participate.
Copenhagen Distortion is a youth society festival capturing the zeitgeist in the city, gathering every year (5 days up to the first weekend of June) up to 100,000 people during the streets, in shops, galleries, clubs, bars, in boats and buses, with a cultural focus on street lifestyle, art and upfront dance music.
Copenhagen Jazz Festival, which begins for the first Friday in July, is a popular annual event that is definitely the result of Copenhagen's important jazz scene. The festival takes place throughout the town in streets, squares and parks as well as in cafés and concert halls. It embraces around 900 concerts, 100 venues and over 200,000 guests from Denmark and around the world. It is recognized as one in the leading jazz festivals while in the World.
Copenhagen Pride is often a gay pride festival taking place every year in August. Among the events is "Tivoli goes pink" and it ends with a parade.
Round Christiansborg Open Water Swim Race is usually a 2 km open water swimming competition taking place each year in late August. This amateur event is merged with a 10 km Danish championship. In 2009 the event included a 10 km FINA World Cup competition during the morning.
CPH:PIX is Copenhagen's international feature film festival, established in 2009 as a fusion in the 20-year-old Natfilm festival along with the 4-year-old CIFF. The CPH:PIX festival takes place in mid-April.
CPH:DOX is Copenhagen's international documentary film festival, every year in November. On top of its documentary film programme of over 100 films, CPH:DOX includes a wide event programme with dozens of events, concerts, exhibitions and parties all over town.
Copenhagen would be the economic and financial centre of Denmark and also a strong enterprise and economic centre inside the Scandinavian-Baltic area. Around 3.5 million inhabitants live inside of a 50 km (31 mi) radius of Copenhagen, making the town centre in the most dense and populated spot in Northern Europe. The region generates approximately 25 per cent of both Sweden's and Denmark's GDP. In 2008, Copenhagen was ranked 4th by Financial Times-owned FDi magazine on their list of Top 50 European Cities in the Future after London, Paris and Berlin. In 2006/07 FDi Magazine named Copenhagen Scandinavian Metropolis with the Future and in 2004/05 Copenhagen was named Northern European City of the Future ahead of other cities from Scandinavia, UK, Ireland and Benelux. In the 2008 Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index, published by MasterCard, Copenhagen was ranked 14th within the world and 1st in Scandinavia. Copenhagen is one of your cities in Western Europe attracting most regional headquarters and distribution centres. Among the worldwide companies that have chosen to locate their regional headquarters in Copenhagen is Microsoft. There are 2,100 foreign companies located during the Copenhagen space, of which approx. 500 are Scandinavian head offices, representing a wide range of industries.
Scandinavian headquarters for the Swiss pharmaceutical company Ferring Pharmaceuticals together with the metro in front
Copenhagen has a service oriented economy. An essential sector is lifetime science and research & development plays a major role in the economy with the city. The entire Oresund Area is in cooperation with Sweden getting promoted as Medicon Valley. Key Danish biotech companies like Novo Nordisk and Lundbeck, both of which are among 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies while in the World, are located inside the greater Copenhagen area. The region also boasts the largest IT-cluster in Scandinavia with nearly 100,000 employees. Transport is also an import organization with Maersk, the World's largest delivery company, having their world headquarters in Copenhagen.
Many global companies have established their regional headquarters in Copenhagen, for example, Microsoft. Maersk, the world's largest container delivery company, has their world headquarters in Copenhagen. A substantial number of Danish pharmaceuticals these as Novo Nordisk, Ferring Pharmaceuticals and Bavarian Nordic also operate in the spot, having placed their headquarters in or close to Copenhagen.
Copenhagen has some of your highest gross wages in the world. High taxes mean that wages are reduced after mandatory deduction. A beneficial researcher scheme with low taxation of foreign specialists has made Denmark an attractive location for foreign labour to settle. Copenhagen is however also among the most expensive cities in Europe.
Education, science, research
Copenhagen has 89-thousand students enrolled in its largest universities and institutions: University of Copenhagen (40,000 students), Copenhagen Organization School (17,000 students), Metropolitan University College and University College Copenhagen (10,000 students each), Technical University of Denmark (7,000 students), KEA (3,000 students), IT University of Copenhagen (2,000 students.) and Aalborg University - Copenhagen (840 students).
Copenhagen's higher-education system relies on public universities. Most prominent among these could be the University of Copenhagen. Founded in 1479, it would be the oldest university in Denmark. It is a world-renowned analysis and teaching institution with campuses around the town and forms part from the International Alliance of Study Universities (IARU), which is really a collaboration between international top universities including Oxford, Cambridge, Yale, Berkeley as well as the Australian National University. The University attracts app. 1500 international and exchange students every year. It is repeatedly ranked as one with the best universities in Europe. At the Times Higher Education-QS World University Rankings 2008 list, it was ranked as fourth best in continental Europe. The Academic Ranking of World Universities 2008 placed it as number 43 worldwide and 8th in Europe.
The Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, is located in Lyngby at the northern outskirts of Copenhagen. In 2008 it was ranked third highest in Europe on Times Higher Education's list with the most influential technical universities during the World. The Max Planck Institute in Germany was ranked 15, ETH Zurich in Switzerland was ranked 15 and DTU in Denmark was ranked 20. The IT University of Copenhagen is Denmark's youngest university, a mono-faculty institution focusing on technical, societal and business enterprise aspects of info engineering.
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts (Det Kongelige Danske Kunstakademi) has provided a practice-oriented complement to the scholarly investigation of the arts carried out at Danish universities for more than 250 years. It includes the historical School of Visual Arts, and has in later years come to include a School of Architecture, a School of Design along with a School of Conservation.
Copenhagen Company School (CBS) is an EQUIS-accredited organization school located in Frederiksberg.
Roskilde University was founded in 1972 after student protests and until recently it had student representatives throughout its governing boards. There are also branches of both University College Money and Metropolitan University College inside and outside Copenhagen.
Main article: Medicon Valley
Copenhagen is rich in companies and institutions with a focus on investigation and development within the biotechnology and life science sectors. Two in the 50 largest pharmaceutical and biotech companies during the World are located within the greater Copenhagen space. The biotech and existence science cluster in Copenhagen as well as the rest of your Oresund Location is one on the strongest in Europe. Because 1995 this has been branded as the Medicon Valley in a Danish-Swedish cooperation. The aim is to strengthen the region's position and to promote cooperation between companies and academia. The German biotech giant Sartorius Stedim Biotech is currently creating a Nordic head office in Tåstrup about the outskirts of Copenhagen. The Øresund location is responsible for 60 percent of lifestyle science production in Scandinavia and is home to 111 biotech companies.
Copenhagen was mentioned by Clean Edge as one in the key cleantech clusters to watch in their 2008 book The Cleantech Revolution. The town will be the focal point for more than 300 cleantech companies drawing on 46 exploration institutions. The cluster employs more than 60,000 people and is characterized by a close collaboration between universities, business and governing institutions. The regions most vital cleantech study institutions are the University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen Organization School, Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy as well as the Technical University of Denmark which Risø is now part of.
The greater Copenhagen space has a very well established transportation infrastructure making it a hub in Northern Europe.
Copenhagen has a large network of toll-free motorways and public roads connecting different municipalities in the city together and to Northern Europe. As in many other cities in Europe traffic is increasing in Copenhagen. The radial arterial roads leading to Copenhagen town centre are critically congested throughout peak hours.
Main article: Cycling in Copenhagen
The Quay Bridge is a pedestrian and bicyclist bridge
Copenhagen is known as one of your most bicycle-friendly cities during the world. Every day one.one million km are bicycled in Copenhagen. 36% of all citizens commute to work, school or university by bicycle and it is municipal policy that this number should go up to 40% by 2012 and 50% in 2015. The city's bicycle paths are extensive and well used. Bicycle paths are often separated from the main traffic lanes and sometimes have their own signal systems.
The municipality is also developing a system of interconnected green bicycle routes, greenways, the aim getting to facilitate fast, safe, and pleasant bicycle transport from one end in the town to the other. The network will cover more than 100 km (62 mi) and will have 22 routes when finished. The town provides public bicycles which can be found throughout the downtown spot and used with a returnable deposit of 20 kroner.
Copenhagen's well-developed bicycle culture is reflected from the use of copenhagenize to describe the practice of other cities adopting Copenhagen-style bike lanes and bicycle infrastructure. In 2007, Copenhagen-based Danish city design consultant Jan Gehl was hired by the New York City Department of Transportation to re-imagine New York City streets by introducing designs to improve lifestyle for pedestrians and cyclists. In recognition of Copenhagen's emphasis on bicycling, the city was chosen by the Union Cycliste Internationale as their first official Bike Metropolis. Bike Town Copenhagen took place from 2008 to 2011 and consisted of large cycling events for professionals as well as amateurs, culminating within the 2011 UCI Road World Championships.
The harbour of Copenhagen has largely lost its industrial importance. In 2001, Copenhagen Harbour merged together with the harbour in Malmö to create Copenhagen-Malmö Port. It has several functions, the most essential currently being as a serious cruise destination. In 2007 a record 286 cruise ships with 420,000 cruise passengers visited Copenhagen. 120 of these ships either started or ended the cruise in Copenhagen. In 2008 these numbers grew further to 310 cruise ships and 560,000 passengers. As a result of your growth from the cruise industry facilities are remaining expanded and improved. At the World Travel Awards in 2008, Copenhagen Port was named the number one cruise destination in Europe for the fifth year in a row.
Copenhagen is serviced by ferry lines to Oslo in Norway (called "Oslobåden") with a daily connection and to Swinoujscie in Poland (called "Polensfærgerne") with five weekly connections (Passengers are taken by bus to Ystad (Sweden) and ferry starts there).
Copenhagen has four lines of waterbuses, known as the Copenhagen Harbour Buses, serving ten water bus stops; four for the Amager-side and six on the Zealand-side of the harbour, from Sluseholmen during the South to Holmen while in the North.
Copenhagen Airport will be the principal airport serving Copenhagen. It is definitely the largest in Scandinavia as well as 17th largest in Europe. Located in Kastrup within the island of Amager, it has efficient connections to downtown Copenhagen, with trip times of 15 minutes to Kongens Nytorv via metro (with 4-6 minutes between departures) and 12 minutes to Central Station via regional train (10 minutes between departures). Its location also makes it the most significant international airport for large parts of southern Sweden. Over the Øresund Bridge trains go to Malmö South in 14 minutes or Malmö Central Station in 22 minutes. The Roskilde airport, 30 km west of metropolis middle, has two (crossing) runways with ILS equipment. It is primarily used for general aviation traffic, flight schools, organization jets and occasional charter flights, but can be used by medium jets - although not always at full take-off weight. Plans for expanding Roskilde Airport have been approved, making it more suitable for regular flights of medium jets, these as those operated by most low-cost airlines and charter operators. However, a lack of firm commitment from airlines has postponed the expansion indefinitely.
The Øresund Bridge, the longest road and rail bridge in Europe, connecting Copenhagen with Malmö, the third largest metropolis of Sweden.
Underground Metro station in Frederiksberg
Christiansborg Palace - home on the Danish Parliament Folketinget, the Supreme Court, Office on the Prime Minister and official reception place of Queen Margrethe II as well as the former stock exchange Børsen
Part of your modern waterfront
Rosenborg Castle in central Copenhagen
Transition from Terminal 2 to Terminal one at the largest airport in Scandinavia, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup
The local transportation system of Copenhagen consists of a number of different, but blended, train systems and various types of buses. The four different rail systems are
Re-tog regional trains (stops at big stations only, continues as interregional trains outside Copenhagen local traffic area)
S-train (a blended city and suburban rail system with a length of 170 km (105.63 mi)., the distance between stations is approximately 2 km (1.24 mi) in the central parts)
Copenhagen Metro (beneath further development, the City Circle Line (M3+M4) is scheduled to be complete in 2018 with plans for three additional lines M5+M6+M7)
Local trains in the periphery on the metropolitan area. (modern but usually driven by diesel or natural gas)
There are 193 rail stations. Most of them have connecting bus services. This link shows all lines, stations and fare zones. The Copenhagen local traffic place is divided in 95 zones. Zones 1,2 and 3 make up the city core of Copenhagen.
The same ticket is valid for travel on bus, train, and metro networks. Ticket machines are installed at all stations, and tickets can also be bought on buses and at ticket counters located at important stations. A ticket price inside the Copenhagen local traffic place is distance-dependent and always between two and nine zones (a nine zone ticket goes for all zones). Price is currently (2011) 12 DKK for each zone. There are a number of tickets that can be bought at different discounts, for instance the 10-trip klippekort (variable price) or 24 hour travel card (130 DKK). The fine for not having a valid ticket is 750DKK.
The main junction stations for interchange between system or lines are the stations of Nørreport, Valby, Danshøj, Kastrup Airport, Ny Ellebjerg, Hellerup, Østerport, Ryparken, Ørestaden, Flintholm, and København H (Copenhagen Central Station). The latter is also a hub for trains with destinations outside the Copenhagen local traffic location.
Danish and international trains
Copenhagen Central Station provides Copenhagen with Intercity and Express trains across Denmark, as well as services to quite a few international destinations. The train traffic to Hamburg is especially heavy, and other distant destinations can also be reached by daily international trains. Trains to southern and western Sweden depart every 20 minutes. (A special ticket fare system exists between the Copenhagen local traffic location and also the most southern part of Sweden, Skåne county.)
Copenhagen is recognized as one with the most environmentally friendly cities while in the world. Much of your city's success can be attributed to a strong municipal policy bundled with a seem national policy, in 1971 Denmark established a Ministry of Environment as well as first country from the world to implement an environmental law in 1973. In 2006 Copenhagen Municipality received the European Environmental Management Award. The award was given for long-term holistic environmental planning. It is municipal policy to reduce CO2 emissions by 20% before the end of 2015. In 2001 a large offshore wind farm was built just off the coast of Copenhagen at Middelgrunden. It produces about 4% with the city's energy.
Many years of big investments in sewage treatment has improved water quality during the harbour to an extent that the inner harbour can be used for swimming and facilities for this are provided at a number of locations.
Another municipal policy is that 40% of all citizens should bicycle to and from work by 2012 and a number of initiatives are remaining taken to implement this policy (see "cycling" above).
Copenhagen may be the capital from the world where organic food has the largest market share. One in every ten purchases is organic in Copenhagen. İnside of the municipal sector in Copenhagen, 45% of all food consumption is organic but the target is considerably higher. While using the environmental strategy "Environment Metropolis: Our Vision 2015" the politicians wish that solely organic food is to be served in 90 per cent in the Copenhagen old-age homes and residential homes for children and young persons in 2015.
Copenhagen has placed well in a number of global rankings, some of which are mentioned beneath.
General rankings and comment
In the 2011 Mercer worldwide survey of 221 cities, Copenhagen was placed ninth for personal safety though it was ranked 11th for quality of living.
It was ranked No.one as Most Livable City during the World by global lifestyle magazine Monocle on their Top 25 Most Livable Cities 2008 list and World's Best Design City 2008 also by Monocle. In 2010, Monocle ranked Copenhagen as the 2nd most liveable metropolis, losing the top spot to Munich.
In 2008, Copenhagen was ranked No.4 by Financial Times-owned FDi magazine on their list of Top50 European Cities from the Future after London, Paris and Berlin. In 2006/07 FDi Magazine named Copenhagen Scandinavian Town of the Future and in 2004/05 Copenhagen was named Northern European Metropolis from the Future ahead of other cities from Scandinavia, UK, Ireland and Benelux.
It is definitely the world's No.7 most expensive metropolis and No.3 most expensive in Europe within the Forbes List.
Business enterprise and commerce rankings
In 2009, Copenhagen was named an Innovation Nexus Town and ranked 12th in Europe and 17th globally for innovation across 31 sectors, out of 256 cities within the Innovation Cities Index published by 2thinknow.
In the 2008 Worldwide Centers of Commerce Index, published by MasterCard, Copenhagen was ranked 14th within the world and 1st in Scandinavia.
In The 2008 Global Cities Index, Copenhagen was ranked 36th during the world, 15th in Europe, and 2nd in Scandinavia.
Copenhagen ranks 3rd in Western Europe and 1st within the Nordic countries for attracting head offices.
Copenhagen No.1 out of 254 locations inside the Location Ranking Survey performed by ECA International that has asked European experts where they prefer to be stationed worldwide.
It is ranked No.7 as Preferred Metropolis For Investment Projects.
It ranked 3rd in Western Europe in terms of attracting regional headquarters and distribution centres, only surpassed by London and Paris.
It ranks No.one from the 2006 Global Earning Ranking.
The city ranks as the 5th most popular town while in the world for intercontinental meetings and conferences.
As of 2011, Copenhagen is ranked as the seventeenth most expensive city during the world according to the Mercer Cost of Living Survey.
Specific rankings and related awards
The Copenhagen Metro has been named the Greenest Metropolis in Europe by Siemens/Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked No.6 in Grist Magazine's "15 Green Cities" list in 2007 making Copenhagen the greenest cash of Scandinavia according to Grist Magazine.
The Copenhagen Metro has been named the Best Metro in the World by industry experts.
Travellers have voted Copenhagen the cleanest metropolis in Europe.
Copenhagen was ranked as one in the most attractive cities to live and work in Europe.