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Oslo (Uk pronunciation: /ˈɒzloʊ/, OZ-loh, Norwegian enunciation: ( listen closely) as well as, more rare or perhaps ) will be the money associated with and quite a few populous town in Norwegian. Launched close to 1048 through Full Harald III, the city has been raised to some bishopric inside 1070 and a money underneath Haakon V all around 1300. Private labor unions along with Denmark from 1397 for you to 1523 along with again via 1536 to 1814 with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 diminished it's affect. Soon after becoming demolished by the hearth inside 1624, the town had been transferred better Akershus Fort in the rule regarding California king Christian IV along with relabeled Christiania in the honor. It had been established like a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 Jan 1838. Using a punctuation change, it turned out known as Kristiania through 1877 for you to 1925, while their original Norwegian title had been renewed.
Oslo may be the economic and also governmental heart of Norway. Town is also a centre involving Norwegian buy and sell, banking, business as well as delivery. It is a crucial center pertaining to ocean going industries and also seafaring swap Europe. The town is home to many companies inside the maritime market, most of which will be the earth's biggest shipping and delivery firms, shipbrokers as well as maritime insurance plan brokers. Oslo is really a pilot city of your Council involving Europe along with the Western Payment intercultural metropolitan areas plan.
Oslo is recognized as a global city along with rated "Beta World City" within studies accomplished by your Globalization and Planet Cities Examine Group and also Circle in 08. It was positioned number one in terms of total well being among Western european significant towns from the Western european Cities of the Future The coming year report through fDi Newspaper. For quite some time, Oslo may be listed as the most costly cities on the planet along with this sort of various other global towns since Zurich, Geneva, Copenhagen, London, as well as Tokyo, japan. In Last year, however, Oslo gotten their reputation because the globe's priciest town. Market research performed by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo Subsequent after Seattle.
At the time of The year 2010 the city part of Oslo has a human population of 1,442,318, of whom 912,046 live in the continuous conurbation. The populace currently improves from record rates, which makes it the quickest growing city inside The european countries. This kind of progress arises for the most part via migrants and high birth rates amid immigration, but additionally coming from intra-national migration. Your Norwegian inhabitants from the area just isn't lowering throughout total quantities, but in relative phrases the share of indigenous Norwegians in the total population in the metropolis proper will be decreasing due to a developing immigrant population and so a growing people in this country. The particular immigrant reveal of people in the area appropriate currently number a lot more than 25% of the city's complete.
At the time of One particular The month of january Next year, the population of the city of Oslo over 610,Thousand. The metropolitan location runs beyond the restrictions with the city into the surrounding county associated with Akershus, (cities of Bærum, Asker, Røyken, Lørenskog, Skedsmo, Gjerdrum, Sørum, Oppegård) it's agglomeration full 912,046 inhabitants. The city part of Oslo, also called the Greater Oslo Region (Norwegian: Stor-Osloregionen), features a property section of Eight,900 km2 (3,400 square michigan) which has a population of 1,422,442 since One particular Apr The year 2010. The Inner Oslo Fjord Area, or perhaps the Cash Location composed from the a few areas associated with Oslo, Akershus, Buskerud, Vestfold (west standard bank with the Oslo fjord) and also Østfold (far east bank) includes a populace of 1,908,231 individuals (as of October The year 2010). The location middle is found after the actual Oslofjord, that point town sprawls in a few distinct "corridors" from its heart; national north-eastwards along with southwards coupled each party in the fjord providing the location area about the shape of your reclining "Y" while seen through the n ..
To the northern along with far east, broad forested slopes (Marka) go above the location offering the location the form of an massive amphitheatre. The particular metropolitan city (bykommune) associated with Oslo as well as region involving Oslo (fylke) are a couple of parts of exactly the same organization, generating Oslo the only area inside Norwegian wherever two administrative ranges tend to be included. İnvolving Oslo's full area, One hundred fifteen km2 (46 square michigan) is built-up as well as 7 km2 (2.6 square mi) will be gardening. The places inside built-up sector amount to 25 km2 (8.5 square mi).
The location involving Oslo has been established as being a town about 3 The month of january 1838 (notice formannskapsdistrikt). It has been separated from the county regarding Akershus to become a region of the company's individual inside 1842. Your countryside town regarding Aker ended up being merged together with Oslo on A single January 1948 (and also together moved through Akershus state to be able to Oslo state). Moreover, Oslo explains to you a number of essential characteristics using Akershus region. The nearby professional commune associated with Aker has been incorporated into Oslo in 1948. people after that took place rapidly at approximately 531,124.
A road with the urban areas involving Oslo in August 2005. The gray area in the centre signifies Oslo's city center.
Regarding complete article, notice Reputation Oslo's name
The original source from the name Oslo continues to be the topic of significantly discussion. It is obviously produced from Aged Norse and was—in just about all probability—originally the naming of a large farmville farm from Bjørvika, nevertheless the concise explaination that will title is actually questioned. Contemporary speakers normally understand the original Óslo as well as Áslo while sometimes "Meadow in the Feet of an Hill" or perhaps "Meadow Consecrated towards the Gods", along with the two considered similarly most likely.
Mistakenly, it once was presumed in which "Oslo" supposed "the mouth of the Lo river", any intended previous reputation for the stream Alna. Even so, not merely doesn't have data been identified of an river "Lo" predating the job wherever Peder Claussøn Friis 1st proposed this etymology, nevertheless the really brand is actually ungrammatical throughout Norwegian: the best type could have been Loaros (cf. Nidaros). The actual identify Lo is considered to be a back-formation reached by simply Friis simply his / her unfounded etymology pertaining to Oslo.
Principal article: Close up associated with Oslo
Oslo is among few urban centers throughout Norwegian, aside from Bergen as well as Tønsberg, without an official layer of biceps and triceps, nevertheless which utilizes a city seal alternatively. The seal off associated with Oslo shows the town's customer e, Street. Hallvard, with his characteristics, the particular millstone along with arrows, which has a nude girl with his feet. He could be resting with a throne using lion adornments, which usually back then seemed to be widely used through the Norwegian Noblemen.
İn accordance with the Norse sagas, Oslo was founded close to 1049 through California king Harald Hardråde. Recent archaeological research has revealed Alfredia burials which may be dated to just before AD One thousand, proof of a new preceding city negotiation. This required the particular get together regarding Oslo's century in Year 2000.
It continues to be thought to be the capital town because the leadership associated with Full Haakon / (1299–1319), the first master to reside completely in the town. Also, he began the building of the Akershus Castle. Century afterwards, Norwegian had been your weakened portion in the personalized marriage along with Denmark, as well as Oslo's position was lowered to that particular involving provincial administrative heart, using the monarchs surviving in Copenhagen. The reality that your School of Oslo began while delayed since 1811 acquired a detrimental effect on the introduction of the nation.
Oslo has been demolished many times by simply hearth, after your fourteenth calamity, within 1624, Full Religious IV of Denmark as well as Norwegian obtained it reconstructed at the brand-new internet site through the these kinds of, around Akershus Fort along with because of the identify Christiania. A long time before this particular, Christiania had started to set up their visibility as a centre associated with trade as well as culture within Norwegian. Fault the location built from 1624 has become referred to as Kvadraturen because of its orthogonal design. The very last problem outbreak ravaged Oslo in 1654. In 1814 Christiania yet again was a real capital once the marriage together with Denmark has been dissolved.
Many sites had been built in the actual 1800s, including the Noble Structure (1825–1848); Stortinget (the particular Parliament) (1861–1866), your College, Nationaltheatret and also the Stock Exchange. One of the world-famous designers that were living the following during this time period had been Henrik Ibsen and Knut Hamsun (rogues had been granted the particular Nobel Award for literature). In 1850, Christiania in addition overtook Bergen and have become the most populated area in the united states. In 1877 the location ended up being renamed Kristiania. The initial name regarding Oslo has been reconditioned in 1925.
Major post: Outdated City, Oslo
Underneath the leadership regarding Full Olav Kyrre, Oslo became a cultural centre with regard to Far eastern Norwegian. Street. Hallvard took over as the municipality's patron st . which is represented around the city's seal.
In 1174, Hovedøya Abbey (Hovedøya kloster) had been constructed. The actual chapels as well as abbeys started to be major people who just love large areas of property, which usually proven essential for the municipality's monetary growth, specially prior to Dark Death.
İn the Middle Ages, Oslo arrived at it's levels inside the reign involving Master Haakon Versus. Shortly fater he began regarding Akershus Citadel along with seemed to be the first california king to call home once and for all within the area, which made it easier for to generate Oslo the main city regarding Norway.
In no more the 12th hundred years, Hanseatic dealers from Rostock moved into the metropolis and obtained major effect from the town. Your Black Loss of life came to Norway inside 1349 and, like additional metropolitan areas within European countries, the location experienced greatly. The churches' earnings from their property furthermore dropped a great deal that the Hanseatic traders focused the particular municipality's foreign trade in the Fifteenth one hundred year.
Over the years, fire ruined significant elements of the location many times, as numerous of the municipality's buildings were constructed totally of solid wood. As soon as the last fireplace in 1624, which in turn lasted for several days and nights, Full Religious IV made a decision that the aged city mustn't be rebuilt once again. His males constructed the network involving roads in Akershagen in close proximity to Akershus Fortress. He or she required that every people need to proceed their own stores and places of work to the newly built capital of scotland - Christiania.
Vent regarding Christiania anno 1800
Aquatint through Bob William Edy
The particular change with the town travelled slowly for your initial century. Outside of the town, in close proximity to Vaterland and also Grønland close to Aged Area, Oslo, a fresh, unmanaged the main city grew up with residents associated with lower reputation.
In the 18th century, following your Great North Warfare, the city's economy multiplied together with shipbuilding along with industry. Your powerful economic climate changed Christiania in to a trading slot.
In the particular Nineteenth century, several point out corporations had been founded as well as the town's position like a money become more intense. Christiania expanded it's sector via 1840, most importantly all around Akerselva. The event caused the actual authorities to construct a number of essential structures, several of which continue being while attractions. There were a short creating increase coming from 1880, with a lot of brand new houses, though the increase flattened within 1889.
Auctioning off children ended up being prohibited legally (Fattigloven) inside 1900, due to court situations associated with children having died/been murdered.
The kommune produced fresh areas like Ullevål Hageby (1918–1926) along with Torshov (1917–1925). Area Hallway has been constructed within the previous slum part of Vika, through 1931–1950. The actual city involving Aker had been incorporated into Oslo within 1948, as well as suburbs had been produced, such as Lambertseter (from 1951). Aker Brygge has been built on the webpage in the past shipyard Akers Mekaniske Verksted, from 1982–1998.
About 25 Come early july 2011, Oslo had been reach by a explosive device blast that will sculpted with the town main government area, in addition damaging Pm Jens Stoltenberg's workplace while he had been lacking and also the nearby Secretary of state for Petroleum. The enemy great time killed at least eight men and women prior to a taking pictures spree about the tropical isle associated with Utøya upon body of water Tyrifjorden, which in turn slain 69 youths doing a Norwegian Your time Celebration youngsters camp out. At fault is actually Anders Behring Breivik.
The seal associated with Haakon / Magnusson, your Master which manufactured Oslo the capital regarding Norway
Christiania in 1814 by MK Tholstrup
At the site of the historic plantation throughout Bjørvika, a whole new sky line is rising.
The Bar code sky line observed from your fresh residential local community from the harbour section.
Discover also: Oslo Graben
Oslo consumes a good arc of terrain with the northern most end from the Oslofjord. Your fjord, that's practically bisected with the Nesodden peninsula opposite Oslo, lies to the south; in all some other instructions Oslo is surrounded by environmentally friendly slopes along with mountains. You can find 45 island destinations from the town restrictions, the most important being Malmøya (3.Fifty six km2/0.Twenty-two sq michigan), as well as scores a lot more across the Oslofjord. Oslo features 343 ponds, the largest getting Maridalsvannet (3.Ninety one km2/1.1951 sq mi). This can be a principal method to obtain h2o for giant aspects of Oslo.
Despite the fact that Japanese Norway carries a quantity of estuaries and rivers, it's unlikely that any of the circulation in the sea from Oslo. Instead Oslo provides a couple of more compact estuaries and rivers: Akerselva (emptying Maridalsvannet, that flows in to the fjord within Bjørvika), and Alna. Your rapids in Akerselva provided capacity to the first contemporary sector involving Norway from the 1840, and later in the millennium, the river had become the indication of the particular stable as well as steady economic as well as cultural break down in the metropolis in to a good East Conclusion as well as a Gulf Conclusion; the actual labourers' communities rest for attributes in the water, along with the split actually uses Uelands road somewhat further western. Water Alna moves via Groruddalen, Oslo's main suburb and business location. The greatest point is Kirkeberget, from 629 yards (2,064 foot). Even though town's population is small compared to the majority of Western richesse, the idea occupies a good abnormally large terrain region, which sixty-six per cent are protected regions of jungles, hills along with waters. Its boundaries include a lot of areas along with open up places, passing it on the airy and environmentally friendly appearance.
A climate graph and or chart of Oslo, Norway. The particular reddish series depicts daytime substantial; orange is nighttime minimal.
Oslo carries a hemiboreal moist continental weather (Dfb in accordance with the Köppen local weather distinction program). As a result of city's north leeway, daylight varies greatly, through greater than 18 a long time in midsummer, when it never receives completely darker in the evening, close to 6 hours inside midwinter. Despite the northern spot, the weather is pretty gentle throughout the year due to Beach Stream.
Oslo features happily gentle to hot summer seasons with common higher conditions regarding 20–22 °C (68–72 °F) along with lows of approximately 12 °C (Fifty four °F). Temperatures go beyond 25 °C (Seventy seven °F) very often, as well as heatwaves are common throughout the summer. The greatest heat ever before noted has been 35 °C (89 °F) about 21 years old July 1901. Due to fjord as a comparatively enclosed pond, the river conditions will get very high in the course of extended cozy periods. Winter months are generally cool as well as cold along with temperature ranges among −7 °C (19 °F) as much as −1 °C (30 °F). The actual most frigid temperature registered can be −27.A single °C (−16.8-10 °F) within Jan 1942. Temperature ranges have tended to be greater recently.
Annual precipitation can be 763 millimetres (40.Zero inside) along with average rain fall throughout every season. Excellent skiing conditions can occur via November to The spring, yet compacted snow accumulation takes place generally through Jan by way of Goal. Almost every wintertime, glaciers develops within the deepest aspects of the Oslofjord, and throughout a few winter seasons the full interior fjord stops. As it's definately not the particular moderate Atlantic ocean water in the gulf shoreline, this large fjord can easily freeze more than completely, of course this is now exceptional. Oslo will get all around 1,650 several hours of sun annually and is regular to the n . half The european countries.
Climate files for Oslo, Norway
Parks along with recreation areas
Main report: Areas along with open areas in Oslo
Oslo features a large number of areas and also green locations inside area key, along with outside this.
Frogner Playground is a big playground located a short while walk away from the location center. This is actually the biggest and many esteemed car park inside Norwegian which has a large assortment of statues of Gustav Vigeland
Bygdøy is a huge and natural region, commonly referred to as Memorial Peninsula of Oslo. The beautiful place, encompassed by the water, helps it be the costliest Norwegian section.
St. Hanshaugen Playground is an outdated general public park on the substantial slope throughout core Oslo. 'St. Hanshaugen' can be the particular encircling local community along with the bigger administrator region (borough) that features main aspects of main Oslo.
Tøyen Park extends out and about powering the Chew Art gallery, and is also a massive, grassy area. In north of manchester, there's a viewing position generally known as Ola Narr. The actual Tøyen area includes the particular Organic Back garden and Art gallery of the University or college regarding Oslo.
Oslo (along with nearby Sandvika-Asker) is made within a horseshoe condition for the shores in the Oslofjord and also minimal for most instructions through slopes and also jungles. As a result, just about any level inside the area is comparatively towards the natrual enviroment. There's two significant woods surrounding the town: Østmarka (virtually "Eastern Forest", for the asian perimeter in the area), along with the very large Nordmarka (virtually "Northern Forest", extending through the northern outside of the city deep into the hinterland).
The actual town works nine public pools. Tøyenbadet will be the biggest in house swimming ability throughout Oslo then one of the few regularly throughout Norway offering a 50-metre primary pool area. The actual outside pool area Frognerbadet also offers your 50-metre range.
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İllustration of Oslo's modern-day buildings. Fine detail from Oslo Chrome House
Oslo's cityscape has redeveloped as being a modern-day city with assorted access-points, an extensive metro-system once you get your monetary section plus a cultural area. In 2008, an exhibition happened london showing the particular award-winning Oslo Firefox Property, your urban regeneration scheme associated with Oslo's seafront, Munch/Stenersen and the brand new Deichman Catalogue. The majority of the structures from the area along with nearby areas are usually reduced peak with only the Plaza, Postgirobygget as well as the highrises at Bjørvika substantially higher.
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Oslo's structure is very diverse. Your creator Carl Frederik Stanley (1769–1805), who had previously been knowledgeable in Copenhagen, expended a number of decades throughout Norwegian throughout the switch of the 19th century. This individual would minimal works for prosperous patrons around Oslo, nevertheless his or her significant achievements was your restoration in the Oslo Katedralskole, finished in 1800. This individual extra a portico for the the front of an more mature framework, plus a semicircular auditorium which was sequestered through Parliament inside 1814 being a momentary spot to assemble, today maintained with Norsk Folkemuseum as being a nationwide monument.
And surrounding suburbs regarding Oslo
While Christiania is made cash regarding Norwegian inside 1814, there were pretty much no properties well suited for the many brand new federal government organizations. An committed creating plan ended up being begun, nevertheless realized quite little by little as a result of monetary limitations. The very first major venture was your Elegant Construction, produced by Dennes Linstow and developed between 1824 as well as 1848. Linstow additionally planned Karl Johans entrance, the actual method hooking up the Development as well as the city, with a monumental rectangular midway to be flanked by buildings regarding University or college, the Parliament (Storting) and also other corporations. Merely the university or college buildings were realized according to this course of action. Religious Heinrich Grosch, one of the primary architects informed entirely inside of Norwegian, created the first creating for that Oslo Stock trading game (1826–1828), the neighborhood branch with the Lender involving Norwegian (1828), Christiania Theatre (1836–1837), along with the initial university for your University associated with Oslo (1841–1856). For that university or college properties, this individual sought aid from your distinguished İn german architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel.}
German architectural influence persisted in Norway, and many wooden buildings followed the principles of Neoclassicism. In Oslo, the German architect Alexis de Chateauneuf designed Trefoldighetskirken, the first neo-gothic church, completed by von Hanno in 1858.
A number of landmark buildings, particularly in Oslo, were built in the Functionalist style (better known in the US and Britain as Modernist), the first being Skansen restaurant (1925–1927) by Lars Backer, demolished in 1970. Backer also designed the restaurant at Ekeberg, which opened in 1929. Kunstnernes Hus art gallery by Gudolf Blakstad and Herman Munthe-Kaas (1930) still shows the influence of the preceding classicist trend of the 1920s. The redevelopment of Oslo Airport (by the Aviaplan consortium) at Gardermoen, which opened in 1998, was Norway's largest construction project to date.
Politics and government
Main article: Politics and government of Oslo
Stortinget is the seat of Norway's parliament.
Oslo is the capital of Norway, and as such is the seat of Norway's national government. Most government offices, including that of the Prime Minister, are gathered at Regjeringskvartalet, a cluster of buildings close to the national Parliament—the Storting.
Constituting both a municipality and a county of Norway, the city of Oslo is represented in the Storting by seventeen Members of Parliament. Six MPs are from the Labour Party; the Conservative Party and the Progress Party have three each; the Socialist Left Party and the Liberals have two each; and one is from the Christian Democrats.
Slottet is the home of the Royal Family.
The combined municipality and county of Oslo has had a parliamentary system of government since 1986. The supreme authority of the city is the City Council (Bystyret), which currently has 59 seats. Representatives are popularly elected every four years. The City Council has five standing committees, each having its own areas of responsibility. The largest parties in the City Council after the 2011-elections are the Conservatives and the Labour Party, with 22 and 20 representatives respectively.
The Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City Council and the highest ranking representative of the city. This used to be the most powerful political position in Oslo, but following the implementation of parliamentarism, the Mayor has had more of a ceremonial role, similar to that of the President of the Storting at the national level. The current Mayor of Oslo is Fabian Stang.
Since the local elections of 2003, the city government has been a coalition of the Conservative Party and the Progress Party. Based mostly on support from the Christian Democrats and the Liberals, the coalition maintains a workable majority in the City Council. After the 2007 local elections on 10 September, the conservative coalition remained in majority. After the elections in 2011 the Conservative Party remained in power after a strong election. The Progress Party chose to leave the city government after losing support in the election and a dispute over the new Munch Museum. The Liberals and the Christian Democrats replaced the Progress Party in the city government.
The Governing Mayor of Oslo is the head of the City government. The post was created with the implementation of parliamentarism in Oslo and is similar to the role of the prime minister at the national level. The current governing mayor is Stian Berger Røsland.
Main article: Economy of Greater Oslo
Office buildings in Bjørvika, part of the redesign of former dock and industrial land in Oslo known as The Barcode Project.
Oslo has a varied and strong economy and was ranked number one among European large cities in economic potential in the fDi Magazine report European Cities of the Future 2012. It was ranked 2nd in the category of business friendliness, behind Amsterdam.
Oslo is an important centre of maritime knowledge in Europe and is home to approximately 1980 companies and 8,500 employees within the maritime sector, some of which are the world's largest shipping companies, shipbrokers, and insurance brokers. Det Norske Veritas, headquartered at Høvik outside Oslo, is one of the three major maritime classification societies in the world, with 16.5% of the world fleet to class in its register. The city's port is the largest general cargo port in the country and its leading passenger gateway. Close to 6,000 ships dock at the Port of Oslo annually with a total of 6 million tonnes of cargo and over five million passengers. The gross domestic product of Oslo totalled NOK268.047 billion (€33.876 billion) in 2003, which amounted to 17% of the national GDP. This compares with NOK165.915 billion (€20.968 billion) in 1995. The metropolitan area, bar Moss and Drammen, contributed 25% of the national GDP in 2003 and was also responsible for more than one quarter of tax revenues. In comparison, total tax revenues from the oil and gas industry on the Norwegian Continental Shelf amounted to about 16%.
Oslo is one of the most expensive cities in the world. As of 2006, it is ranked tenth according to the Worldwide Cost of Living Survey provided by Mercer Human Resource Consulting and first according to the Economist Intelligence Unit. The reason for this discrepancy is that the EIU omits certain factors from its final index calculation, most notably housing. Although Oslo does have the most expensive housing market in Norway, it is comparably cheaper than other cities on the list in that regard. Meanwhile, prices on goods and services remain some of the highest of any city. Oslo hosts 2654 of the largest companies in Norway. Within the ranking of Europe's largest cities ordered by their number of companies Oslo is in fifth position. A whole group of oil and gas companies is situated in Oslo. According to a report compiled by Swiss bank UBS in the month of August 2006, Oslo and London were the world's most expensive cities.
Oslo is a compact city. It is easy to move around by public transportation and you can access rentable city bikes all over the city centre. In 2003, Oslo received The European Sustainable City Award and in 2007 Reader's Digest ranked Oslo as number two on a list of the world's greenest, most liveable cities.
See also Transportation
The faculty of Law, University of Oslo.
Norwegian School of Management (BI) main building.
Institutions of higher education
University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo (UiO))—undergraduate, graduate and PhD programs in most fields.
Oslo and Akershus University College of applied sciences (Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus (HiOA)), former Oslo University College. Focuses on 3–4 year professional degree programs.
BI Norwegian Business School (Handelshøyskolen BI)—primarily economics and business administration.
Norwegian School of Information Technology (Norges Informasjonsteknologiske Høyskole (NITH))
Oslo School of Architecture and Design (Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo (AHO))
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences (Norges idrettshøgskole (NIH))—offers opportunities to study at the Bachelor, Masters and Doctoral level
Norwegian Academy of Music (Norges musikkhøgskole)
MF Norwegian School of Theology (Det teologiske Menighetsfakultet - MF)
Oslo National Academy of the Arts (Kunsthøgskolen i Oslo - KHIO)
Norwegian University of Life Sciences (Universitetet for Miljø og Biovitenskap - UMB) located in Ås, right outside of Oslo
Norwegian Army Academy (Krigsskolen)
The Norwegian Defence University College (Forsvarets høgskole)
The Norwegian Police University College (Politihøgskolen - PHS)
Norwegian School of Veterinary Science (Norges Veterinærhøgskole)
Oslo Academy of Fine Arts (Statens kunstakademi)
Oslo School of Management (Markedshøyskolen - MH) located at the Campus Kristiania education center.
The level of education and productivity in the workforce is high in Norway. Nearly half of those with education at tertiary level in Norway live in the Oslo region, placing it among Europe's top three regions in relation to education. In 2008, the total workforce in the greater Oslo region (5 counties) numbered 1,020,000 people. The greater Oslo region has several higher educational institutions and is home to more than 73,000 students. The University of Oslo is the largest institution for higher education in Norway with 27,400 students and 7,028 employees in total.
Oslo has a large and varied number of cultural attractions, which include several buildings containing artwork from Edvard Munch and various other international artists but also several Norwegian artists. Several world-famous writers have either lived or been born in Oslo. Examples are Knut Hamsun and Henrik Ibsen. The government has recently invested large amounts of money in cultural installations, facilities, buildings and festivals in the City of Oslo. Bygdøy, outside the city centre is the centre for history and the Norwegian Vikings' history. The area contains a large amount of parks and seasites and a large amount of museums. Examples are the Fram Museum, Vikingskiphuset and the Kon-Tiki Museum. Oslo hosts the annual Oslo Freedom Forum, a conference described by The Economist as “on its way to becoming a human-rights equivalent of the Davos economic forum.” Oslo is also known for giving out the Nobel Peace Prize every year.
Historic buildings at Norsk Folkemuseum
Oslo houses several major museums and galleries. The Munch Museum contains the Scream and other works by Edvard Munch, who donated all his work to the city after his death. The City-Council is currently planning a new Munch Museum which is most likely to be built in Bjørvika, in the southeast of the city. The museum will be named Munch/Stenersen. 50 different museums are located around the city. Folkemuseet is located on the Bygdøy peninsula and is dedicated to Folk art, Folk Dress, Sami culture and the viking culture. The outdoor museum contains 155 authentic old buildings from all parts of Norway, including a Stave Church. The Vigeland Museum located in the large Vigeland Park by many people known as the Frognerpark is free to access and contains over 212 sculptures by Gustav Vigeland including an obelisk and the Wheel of Life. Another popular sculpture is Sinnataggen, a baby boy stamping his foot in fury. This statue is very well known as an icon in the city. The Viking Ship Museum features three Viking ships found at Oseberg, Gokstad and Tune and several other unique items from the Viking age. The Oslo City Museum holds a permanent exhibition about the people in Oslo and the history of the city. The Kon-Tiki Museum houses Thor Heyerdahl's Kontiki and Ra2.
Nobel Peace Center
The National Museum holds and preserves, exhibits and promotes public knowledge about Norway's most extensive collection of art. The Museum shows permanent exhibitions of works from its own collections but also temporary exhibitions that incorporate work loaned from elsewhere. The National Museums exhibition avenues are the National Gallery, the Museum of Contemporary Art, the National Museum, the Museum of Decorative Arts and the National Museum of Architecture. A new National Museum in Oslo will be built in the next 10 years. The winner was Forum Artis, and the building will be located at Vestbanen behind the Nobel Peace Center. The Nobel Peace Center is an independent organisation opened on 11 June 2005 by the King Harald V as part of the celebrations to mark Norway's centenary as an independent country. The building houses a permanent exhibition, expanding every year when a new Nobel Peace Prize winner is announced, containing information of every winner in history. The building is mainly used as a communication centre.
Music and events
A large number of festivals are held in Oslo, such as Oslo Live, a rock and roll event, and the Oslo Jazz festival is a six-day festival which has been held annually in August for the past 25 years. Oslo's biggest Rock festival is Øyafestivalen or simply "Øya". It draws about 60,000 people to the Medieval Park east in Oslo and last for four days.
The Oslo International Church Music Festival has been held annually since 2000. The Oslo World Music Festival showcases people who are stars in their own country but strangers in Norway. The Oslo Chamber Music Festival is held in August every year and world-class chambers and soloists gather in Oslo to perform at this festival. The Norwegian Wood Rock Festival is held every year in June in Oslo.
The Nobel Peace Prize Ceremony is headed by the Institute; the award ceremony is held annually in The City Hall on 10 December. Even though Sami land is far away from the capital, the Norwegian Museum of Cultural History marks the Sami National Day with a series of activities and entertainment.
The World Cup Biathlon in Holmenkollen is held every year and here male and female competitors compete against each other in Sprint, Pursuit and Mass Start disciplines.
Other examples of annual events in Oslo are Desucon, a convention focusing on Japanese culture and Færderseilasen, the world's largest overnight regatta with more than 1100 boats taking part every year.
Rikard Nordraak, composer of the Norwegian national anthem, was born in Oslo in 1842.
Norway's principal orchestra is the Oslo Philharmonic, based at the Oslo Concert Hall since 1977. Although it was founded in 1919, the Oslo Philharmonic can trace its roots to the founding of the Christiania Musikerforening (Christiania Musicians Society) by Edvard Grieg and Johan Svendsen in 1879.
The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway
Oslo houses over 20 theatres, such as the Norwegian Theatre and the National Theatre located at Karl Johan Street. The National Theatre is the largest theatre in Norway and is situated between the royal palace and the parliament building, Stortinget. The names of Ludvig Holberg, Henrik Ibsen and Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson are engraved on the façade of the building over the main entrance. This theatre represents the actors and play-writers of the country but the songwriters, singers and dancers are represented in the form of a newly opened Oslo Opera House, situated in Bjørvika. The Opera was opened in 2008 and is a national landmark, designed by the Norwegian architectural firm, Snøhetta. There are two houses, together containing over 2000 seats. The building cost 500 million euro to build and took five years to build and is known for being the first Opera House in the world to let people walk on the roof of the building. The foyer and the roof are also used for concerts as well as the three stages.
Most great Norwegian authors have lived in Oslo for some period in their life. For instance, Nobel Prize-winning author Sigrid Undset grew up in Oslo, and described her life there in the autobiographical novel Elleve år (1934; translated as The longest years; New York 1971).
The playwright Henrik Ibsen is probably the most famous Norwegian author. Ibsen wrote plays such as Peer Gynt, A Doll's House and The Lady from the Sea. The Ibsen Quotes project completed in 2008 is a work of art consisting of 69 Ibsen quotations in stainless steel lettering which have been set into the granite sidewalks of the city's central streets.
In recent years, novelists like Lars Saabye Christensen, Tove Nilsen and Roy Jacobsen have described the city and its people in their novels. Early 20th-century literature from Oslo include poets Rudolf Nilsen and André Bjerke.
The newspapers Aftenposten, Dagbladet, Verdens Gang, Dagens Næringsliv, Finansavisen, Dagsavisen, Morgenbladet, Vårt Land, Nationen and Klassekampen are published in Oslo. The main office of the national broadcasting company NRK is located at Marienlyst in Oslo, near Majorstuen. TVNorge (TVNorway) is also located in Oslo, while TV 2 (based in Bergen) and TV3 (based in London) operate branch offices in central Oslo. There is also a variety of specialty publications and smaller media companies. A number of magazines are produced in Oslo. The two dominant companies are Aller Media and Hjemmet Mortensen AB.
Supporters cheering for their team in Bislett Stadion
Holmenkollen National Arena and Holmenkollbakken is the country's main biathlon and Nordic skiing venue. It hosts annual world cup tournaments, including the Holmenkollen Ski Festival. It has hosted Biathlon World Championships in 1986, 1990, 1999 and 2002. FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been hosted in 1930, 1966, 1982 and 2011, as well as the 1952 Winter Olympics.
Ullevål Stadion is the home arena for the Tippeligaen football side Vålerenga Fotball, the Norwegian national football team and the Football Cup Final. The stadium has previously hosted the finals of the UEFA Women's Championship in 1987 and 1997, and the 2002 UEFA European Under-19 Football Championship. Røa IL is Oslo's only team in the women's league, Toppserien. Each year, the international youth football tournament Norway Cup is held on Ekebergsletta and other places in the city.
Bislett Stadion is the city's main track and field venue, and hosts the annual Bislett Games, part of IAAF Diamond League. Bjerke Travbane is the main venue for harness racing in the country. Oslo Spektrum is used for large ice hockey and handball matches. Bækkelagets SK and Nordstrand IF plays in the women's Postenligaen in handball, while Vålerenga Håndball plays in the men's league. Jordal Amfi, the home of the ice hockey team Vålerenga Ishockey, and Manglerudhallen is the home of Manglerud Star, both of whom play in GET-ligaen. The 1999 IIHF World Championship in ice hockey were held in Oslo, as have three Bandy World Championships, in 1961, 1977 and 1985. The UCI Road World Championships in bicycle road racing were hosted 1993.
Oslo Police District is Norway's largest police district with over 2300 employees. Over 1700 of those are police officers, nearly 140 police lawyers and 500 civil employees. Oslo Police District has five police stations located around the city. The National Criminal Investigation Service is located in Oslo, which is a Norwegian special police division under the NMJP. PST is also located in the Oslo District. PST is a security agency which was established in 1936 and is one of the non-secret agencies in Norway.
Oslo police stated that the capital is one of Europe's safest. But the statistics have showed that crime in Oslo is on the rise, and some media have reported that there are four times as many thefts and robberies in Oslo than in New York City for example. This was echoed by the German travel guide Dumont who now describes the city as being unsafe for female tourists. The guide also named Oslo "The Crime capital of Scandinavia". According to the Oslo Police, they receive more the 15.000 reports of petty thefts annually. That is per capita more than seven times the number of Berlin for example. Approx 0.8% of those cases get solved.
The City has witnessed annual spikes in Sexual assault cases in recent years. The official Committee on Sexual assaults (Voldteksutvalget) have reported that around 90% of rape incidents in Norway go unreported. And that there is about 1% chance that the rapist will be convicted. Activists have claimed that women's lack of due process in rape cases is seriously affecting women's rights in Norway.
On 22 July 2011, Oslo was the site of one of two terrorist attacks: the bombing of Oslo government offices, and a shooting at a youth camp in Utøya.
Oslo has Norway's most extensive public transport system, managed by Ruter. This includes the six-line Oslo Metro, the world's most extensive metro per resident, the six-line Oslo Tramway and the eight-line Oslo Commuter Rail. The tramway operates within the areas close to the city centre, while the metro, which runs underground through the city centre, operates to suburbs further away; this includes two lines that operate to Bærum, and the Ring Line which loops to areas north of the centre.
Oslo Central Station acts as the central hub, and offers rail services to most major cities in southern Norway as well as Stockholm and Gothenburg in Sweden. The Airport Express Train operates along the high-speed Gardermoen Line. The Drammen Line runs under the city centre in the Oslo Tunnel. Some of the city islands and the neighbouring municipality of Nesodden are connected by ferry. Daily cruiseferry services operate to Copenhagen and Frederikshavn in Denmark, and to Kiel in Germany.
Many of the motorways pass through the downtown and other parts of the city in tunnels. The construction of the roads is partially supported through a toll ring. The major motorways through Oslo are European Route E6 and E18. There are three beltways, the innermost which are streets and the outermost, Ring 3 which is an expressway.
The main airport serving the city is Gardermoen Airport, located in Ullensaker, 47 kilometres (29 mi) from the city centre of Oslo. It acts as the main international gateway to Norway, and is the sixth-largest domestic airport in Europe. Gardermoen is a hub for Scandinavian Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle and Widerøe. Oslo is also served by two secondary airports, which serve some low-cost carriers, such as Ryanair: Rygge Airport and Torp Airport, the latter being 110 kilometres (68 mi) from the city.