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Top left:Eskişehir tramway and Doktoriar Street, Top right:Resadiye Mosque and Camii Square in Arifiye area, Middle left:Odunpazari old residence street, Middle right:Guvercinli Park, Bottom left:Midas Sehri Tomb, Bottom right:Haller Genclik Merkezi Shopping Mall in Eskibaglar area
Eskişehir is located in Turkey
Location of Eskişehir
Coordinates: 39°47′N 30°31′E
Region Central Anatolia
Mayor Yılmaz Büyükerşen (CHP)
Governor Kadir Koçdemir
City 2,678.00 km2 (1,033.98 sq mi)
Elevation 788 m (2,585 ft)
Density 236/km2 (610/sq mi)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 26 xxx
Area code(s) (+90) 222
Licence plate 26
Eskişehir (pronounced [esˈciʃehiɾ]; Turkish: eski "old", şehir "city") (Latin: Dorylaeum; Ancient Greek: Δορύλαιον, Dorılaion) is a city in northwestern Turkey and the capital of the Eskişehir Province. According to the 2011 census, the population of the city is 648,396. The city is located on the banks of the Porsuk River, 792 m above sea level, where it overlooks the fertile Phrygian Valley. In the nearby hills one can find hot springs. The city is 233 km (145 mi) to the west of Ankara, 330 km (205 mi) to the southeast of Istanbul and 78 km (48 mi) to the northeast of Kütahya. Known as a university town, both Eskişehir Osmangazi University and Anadolu University (which has one of the largest student enrollments in the world) are based in Eskişehir. The province covers an area of 2,678 km2 (1,034 sq mi).
According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, as of 2011 the Eskişehir Metropolitan Municipality had a population of 648,396
The name Eskişehir literally means Old City in Turkish; indeed, the city was founded by the Phrygians in about 1000 BOT. Many Phrygian artifacts and sculptures can still be found in the city's archeological museum. There is also a museum of meerschaum stone, whose production remains still notable, used to make high quality meerschaum pipes. In the fourth century AD the city moved about ten km northeast, from Karacahisar to Şehirhöyük.
Whenever it was mentioned by ancient geographers, the city was described as one of the most beautiful in Anatolia.
As with many towns in Anatolia, Christianity arrived after Constantine the Great made it the official religion of the Roman Empire. Beginning in the 4th century, records exist of bishops holding office in Eskişehir. The city was known as Dorylaeum in that period. One of these bishops, Eusebius, was heavily involved in shaping the evolving dogma of the church.
Modern-day Eskişehir is one of Turkey's foremost industrial cities. Traditionally dependent on flour milling and brickyards, the city expanded with the building of railway workshops in 1894 for work on the Berlin-Baghdad Railway.
Devrim, the first Turkish automobile, was produced in 1961 at the TÜLOMSAŞ factory in Eskişehir.
Eskişehir was also the site of Turkey's first aviation industry (Aeronautical Supply Maintenance Centre) and its air base was the command center of Turkey's first Tactical Air Force headquarters on NATO's southern flank during the Cold War.
Eskişehir boasts many modern industries: production of trucks, home appliances, railway locomotives, fighter aircraft engines, agricultural equipment, textiles, brick, cement, chemicals, processed meerschaum and refined sugar.
Eti, one of Turkey's largest food brands (mostly producing biscuit, chocolate and candy varieties) is based in Eskişehir.
Arçelik, a major Turkish home appliances and consumer electronics manufacturer, has one of its production plants in Eskişehir.
There are two universities in Eskişehir. These are the Anadolu University and Eskişehir Osmangazi University. The current Metropolitan Mayor of Eskişehir, Prof. Dr. Yılmaz Büyükerşen, was formerly the rector of the Anadolu University.
The city has a significant population of Turkic Crimean Tatars. It also attracted ethnic Turks emigrating from Balkan countries such as Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Sandak who contributed to the development of the city's metalworking industries.
Most of modern-day Eskişehir was rebuilt after the Turkish War of Independence (1919-1922), but a number of historic buildings remain, such as the Kurşunlu Cami Mosque. The archaeological site of the ancient Phrygian city of Dorylaeum is close to Eskişehir. The city is noted for its natural hot sulphur springs.