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Sinop
A collage of Sinop, Turkey.
Sinop, Turkey is located in Turkey
Sinop
Location of Sinop, Turkey
Coordinates: 4202′N 3509′ECoordinates: 4202′N 3509′E
Country Turkey
Region Black Sea
Province Sinop
Districts 9
Government
Mayor Baki Ergl (Republican People's Party, CHP)
Governor Ahmet Cengiz
Population (2010)[1]
City 202,740
Urban 107,275
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 57xxx
Area code(s) (+90) 368
Licence plate 57



Sinop (Greek: Σινώπη, Sinōpē) is a city with a population of 36,734 on İnce Burun (İnceburun, Cape Ince), by its Cape Sinop (Sinop Burnu, Boztepe Cape, Boztepe Burnu) which is situated on the most northern edge of the Turkish side of the Black Sea coast, in the ancient region of Paphlagonia, in modern-day northern Turkey, historically known as Sinope (play /sɨˈnoʊpi/). It is the capital of Sinop Province.

Climate
Black Sea and Sinop port.

Sinop is situated on the Black Sea coast, hence has an humid subtropical (Kppen climate classification: Cfa).

Sinop has warm and humid summers with an average of 26C (78.8F) however temperatures rarely exceed +30C (86F). The highest recorded temperature for Sinop was 34.4C (93.92F) on 06 July 2000. The winters are cool and wet. The average for winter ranging around 5C (41F). The lowest recorded temperature for Sinop was -7.5C (18.5F) on 21 February 1985. Snowfall is quite common between the months of December and March, snowing for a week or two.


History
Sinop old city, Ottoman era postcard

Long used as a Hittite port which appears in Hittite sources as "Sinuwa" (J. Garstang, The Hittite Empire, p. 74), the city proper was re-founded as a Greek colony from the city of Miletus in the 7th century BC (Xenophon, Anabasis 6.1.15; Diodorus Siculus 14.31.2; Strabo 12.545). Sinope flourished as the Black Sea port of a caravan route that led from the upper Euphrates valley (Herodotus 1.72; 2.34), issued its own coinage, founded colonies, and gave its name to a red arsenic sulfate mined in Cappadocia, called "Sinopic red earth" (Miltos Sinpik) or sinople. [3]

Sinope escaped Persian domination until the early 4th century BC, and in 183 BC it was captured by Pharnaces I and became capital of the kingdom of Pontus. Lucullus conquered Sinope for Rome in 70 BC, and Julius Caesar established a Roman colony there, Colonia Julia Felix, in 47 BC. Mithradates Eupator was born and buried at Sinope, and it was the birthplace of Diogenes, of Diphilus, poet and actor of the New Attic comedy, of the historian Baton, and of the Christian heretic of the 2nd century AD, Marcion.

It remained with the Eastern Roman Empire or the Byzantines. It was a part of the Empire of Trebizond from the sacking of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade in 1204 until the capture of the city by the Seljuk Turks of Rm in 1214.

After 1261, Sinop became home to two successive independent emirates following the fall of the Seljuks: the Pervne and the Jandarids. It was captured by the Ottomans in 1458.

In November 1853, at the start of the Crimean War, in the Battle of Sinop, the Russians, under the command of Admiral Nakhimov, destroyed an Ottoman frigate squadron in Sinop, leading Britain and France to declare war on Russia.

Sinop hosted a US military base that was important for intelligence during the cold war era. The US base was closed in 1992.

Explorer Bob Ballard discovered an ancient ship wreck north west of Sinop in the Black Sea and was shown on National Geographic.

Source
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