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Major article: Sofia (Bulgarian: pronounced ( pay attention)) is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria and the

15th greatest city inside the European Union having a population of just one.3 thousand people. It is situated in western Bulgaria, with

the foot of Mount Vitosha and about at the centre in the Balkan Peninsula.

Prehistoric negotiations were excavated at the heart of the current city, at the royal structure, as well as in external

districts Slatina along with Obelya. The well-preserved area walls (particularly their substructures) date back before the 7th

century B . c ., when Thracians set up their city around any mineral early spring, which is available to the present day. Sofia has had

many names in the different times of its living. Its ancient name, Serdika or Serdica, comes from the nearby

Celtic tribe from the serdi who lived in the region since the 1st millennium BC. Serdica would be a Roman capital throughout the

tetrarchic system of government. During the Old, it was one of the main commercial organisations of the Bulgarian

Empire, along with Tarnovo. Sofia's inhabitants remained small until 1879, if this was stated a funds of the

Principality of Bulgaria after the Liberation of Bulgaria via Ottoman rule.

Sofia continues to be ranked through the Globalization and World Cities Study Network as being a beta- world area. Many of the key

universities, social institutions, and also businesses associated with Bulgaria are centered in Sofia.


Sofia was first talked about in the resources in relation to Marcus Licinius Crassus' promotions in 59 BC.

The name Serdica or even Sardica (???????, ???????) was well-known in Latina, Ancient Greek and also Byzantine Greek sources from

Antiquity along with the Middle Ages; it had been related to the neighborhood Celtic tribe with the Serdi. The identify was very last used in the actual 19th

millennium in a Bulgarian text message, Service along with hagiography of E George the New of Sofia: ?? ????????.

An additional of Sofia's brands, Triaditsa (?????????), was described in Ancient greek language medieval solutions. The Bulgarian brand Sredets

(???????), which is linked to ????? sreda (middle), initial appeared in the 11th-century Vision of Daniel and has been widely

found in the Middle Ages.

The current brand Sofia was first found in the 14th-century Vitosha Charter of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman or even in a Ragusan

product owner's notes involving 1376; it means famous Holy Sophia Church, early church inside the city named after the

Religious concept of the actual Holy İntelligence. Although Sredets always been in use prior to the late 18th century, Sofia gradually

overcame the Slavic brand in acceptance. During the Ottoman principle it was named Sofya by the Turkish conquerors of


The municipality's name is actually pronounced through Bulgarians with a stress on the 'o', as opposed with the trend of visitors to place

the worries on 'i'. Interestingly, the female given title "Sofia" is noticable by Bulgarians with a stress on your 'i'.

Sofia's growth as a considerable settlement owes considerably to its central position inside the Balkans. It is situated throughout western

Bulgaria, at the northern ft . of the Vitosha huge batch, in the Sofia Valley that is encompassed by mountains in all sides.

Your valley could be the largest in the country with territory of 1,186 square kilometres (458 square mi) and also average height of 550

meters (1,800 ft). About three mountain goes lead to the city, which have been important roads since antiquity, connecting the

Adriatic Sea and Central The european union with the Dark-colored and Aegean Seas. A number of reduced rivers corner the city, such as

Vladaiska and the Perlovska. Your Iskar River in their upper course flows in close proximity to eastern Sofia. The location is known for it's

numerous spring and energy springs. Man-made and dam waters were internal the last one hundred year.

It is located 130 kilometres (81 mi) north west of Plovdiv, Bulgaria's subsequent largest town, 340 kilometer (210 mi) western side

of Burgas and also 380 kilometres (240 mi) gulf of Varna, Bulgaria's main port-cities on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.

The city is found at less than 2 hundred kilometres (120 mi) through the borders together with three nations around the world: 55 km's (34 michigan) from

Kalotina for the Serbian border, 113 kms (70 mi) from Gyueshevo for the frontier with the Republic of Macedonia and

183 kilometer (114 mi) through the Greek boundary at Kulata.

The city has an division of 1344 km2.

Sofia includes a humid continental climate with long winters and prolonged summers. The average annual climate is 10.Three or more °C (50.Five


Winters are relatively frosty and cold. In the most frigid days temps can drop as low as -15 °C (Five °F) or reduce, most

significantly in The month of january. Foggy conditions are normal, especially in the introduction of the season. An average winter inside Sofia

receives normally 40 wintry days with a total snowfall of around Three months cm (Thirty five.5 inches wide) and about Sixty days with compacted snow cover.

Summer months are quite warm and sun-drenched. In summer, Sofia normally remains somewhat cooler compared to other parts of Bulgaria, due

for the higher elevation. However, the location is also afflicted by frequent prolonged high temperatures with high conditions exceeding 25 °C

(86 °F) with regard to weeks as well as approaching toward 40 °C (One hundred and four °F) in the best days, specially in July and August.

Rises and autumns within Sofia are very quick. Generally they offer mild weather, but sometimes may feel either high temperature

waves as well as snowfalls.

With around 85 rainy days every year, the city receives an average precipitation of 610 millimeters (24 inches wide) a year, hitting its

maximum in the beginning in the summer when thunderstorms aren't uncommon.

Interior of the ancient Almost holy Sophia Church which gave the name towards the city

Sofia had been originally any Thracian settlement referred to as Serdica, or Sardica, possibly named following the Celtic tribe Serdi. For

a short period during the 4th century BC, the location was reigned over by Philip associated with Macedon and his boy Alexander the Great. Close to

BC Twenty nine, Serdica was mastered by the Romans. It had been a municipium, or heart of an management region, during the reign

regarding Emperor Trajan (98-117) and was renamed Ulpia Serdica. It looks like the first composed mention of Serdica was made by

Ptolemy (close to 100 Advertisement). Serdica (Sardica) expanded, because turrets, protective wall space, public bathrooms, administrative as well as cult

structures, a social basilica, an amphitheatre - the City Council (Boulé), a large Community forum, a big Festival (Theatre), etc. were


When Emperor Diocletian split the land of Dacia into Dacia Ripensis (at the banking institutions of the Danube) along with Dacia

Mediterranea, Serdica became the money of Dacia Mediterranea. The city subsequently expanded for a one hundred year and a half, this

became a considerable political and also economical heart, moreso - this became the primary Roman cities where Christianity

was acknowledged as an official religious beliefs (?mperor Galerius). In 343 AD, your Council associated with Sardica was held from the city, within a

church located where the existing 6th one hundred year Church of Saint Sophia had been later developed.

The city ended up being destroyed in the 447 invasion from the Huns. It was refurbished by Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and for a while

known as Triaditsa or Sredets with the slavonic tribes. During the reign of Justinian this flourished, getting surrounded along with

great castle walls whose remnants can nonetheless be seen today.
Middle Ages and also Ottoman rule

Sofia initial became the main First Bulgarian Empire during the leadership of Khan Krum within 809, after a prolonged siege.

After, it was recognized by the Bulgarian identify "Sredets" and increased into an essential fortress along with administrative heart.

After the fall of North-eastern Bulgaria underneath John I Tzimiskes' military in 971, the particular Bulgarian Patriarch Damyan chose Sofia

for his chair in the next yr. After a quantity of unsuccessful sieges, town fell to the Byzantine Empire within 1018, but

once more was incorporated into the renewed Bulgarian Empire before Tsar Ivan Asen I.

From the 12th to the Fourteenth century, Sofia would be a thriving center of buy and sell and homemade projects. It is possible that it had been named

by the widespread population Sofia (which means "wisdom" in Language of ancient greece) about 1376 as soon as the church of Saint Sophia. However, in

distinct testimonies it turned out called the two "Sofia" and "Sredets" until the end of the 19th century. In 1382, Sofia was grabbed

by the Ottoman Country in the course of the particular Bulgarian-Ottoman Wars from a long siege.
Sofia in mid-19th century

After the been unsuccessful crusade associated with Wladyslaw III of Belgium in 1443 in direction of Sofia, the municipality's Christian top notch was annihilated and

the city had become the capital of the Ottoman province (beylerbeylik) of Rumelia for more than four centuries, which

encouraged many Turks to settle there. In the 16th century, Sofia's downtown layout and look began to demonstrate a clear

Ottoman style, with many mosques, water fountains and hamams (bathhouses). During that period the town had a population of about


The town has been seized for many weeks by simply Bulgarian hayduts in 1599. In 1610 the Vatican established the See regarding Sofia for

Catholics regarding Rumelia, which existed until 1715 when most Catholics had emigrated. In the 16th century there have been 126

Jewish homes, and there is a synagogue in Sofia considering that 967. The town had been the center of Sofya Eyalet (1826-1864).
Right after 1878
A 1908 plan of the city

Sofia was consumed by European forces in January Some, 1878, during the Russo-Turkish Warfare, 1877-78, and became the main city of the

autonomous Principality of Bulgaria throughout 1879, which took over as Kingdom involving Bulgaria in 1908. It ended up being proposed as a capital simply by

Marin Drinov and had been accepted as such on 3 April 1879. After the Liberation Conflict, the new title "Sofia" replaced that old one

("Sredets"). Quite some time after 1878 there was clearly a strong will certainly, expressed by simply Bulgarian committees, to keep the particular name

Sredets, but the Russian management accepted Sofia. As soon as of its liberation the population associated with

the city has been 11,649. For a couple decades after the liberation the city experienced large population growth mostly from

other regions of the nation.

During Entire world War II, Sofia was bombed by Allied planes in late 1943 and early 1944. On account of the invasion of

your Soviet Reddish Army, Bulgaria's federal government, which was allied with Germany, had been overthrown.

The conversions of Bulgaria in a People's Republic throughout 1946 and Republic regarding Bulgaria marked significant changes in the actual

city's physical appearance. The population involving Sofia expanded swiftly due to migration from your country. Totally new residential areas

were built in the particular outskirts from the city, just like Druzhba, Mladost and Lyulin.
Main article: Sofia districts
Shopping mall of Sofia throughout Vazrazhdane

Politically, administratively and cheaply, Bulgaria is a highly centralized point out, making Sofia a national

management unit of its own appropriate. It should not being confused with Sofia Land, which surrounds but won't

include the metropolis itself. Aside from the city proper, the Twenty four districts regarding Sofia encompass three other cities and Thirty four villages.

Each one has its own district mayor that's elected within a popular election. The head from the Sofia Municipality

is actually its mayor. The assembly members are chosen every single four years. The present mayor regarding Sofia is Yordanka Fandakova.

The following are some of the most ethnically and cheaply significant districts:

Oborishte is in the quite center of the town, where the majority of landmarks and also administrative edifices are placed. It is known

for its predominantly neo-Renaissance along with Viennese architecture, substantial green belts and yellowish cobblestones.
Sredets neighbours Oborishte as well as shares several of its distinct architecture. It may be the site regarding Borisova gradina (Gardens

associated with Boris) and the Vasil Levski Countrywide Stadium.
Vazrazhdane is surely an economically productive district where lots of trade centers and finance institutions, along with some gentle industry

manufacturing companies, are located. One among its main boulevards is Marie Louise Boulevard, the site of the Central Sofia

Marketplace Hall, TZUM and also St Nedelya Chapel.
Mladost is one of the most modern and fast developing areas in Sofia. It's also one of the most significant districts in terms

of population (second and then Lyulin) with its One hundred ten,000 inhabitants. It is generally very poor in points of interest and administrative

institutions, however it concentrates the particular headquarters of numerous domestic and international organizations, large-scale department

merchants, official automobile dealerships, and also Business Recreation area Sofia at it's southern stop. The structures is a mixture of

Socialist-era apartment obstructs, industrial companies and brand new buildings, most of which were built after 04.

Mladost has excellent transport internet connections to all remaining districts associated with Sofia.
Vitosha is located around the foot regarding Vitosha Mountain. It keeps a key area as it is the web page where the Sofia diamond ring road

along with Bulgaria Boulevard mix. Luxury properties and apartment complexes dominate in Vitosha area. It has good connections for you to

both the city centre and the nearby hill resorts. Boyana will be the site in the presidential residence, the Nu Boyana Film

companies, the National Traditional Museum as well as the Boyana Church.


The prospect of Sofia mixes a wide range of arhitectural variations, some of which are hardly compatible. These vary from

Christian Roman structures and medieval Bulgar fortresses to Neoclassicism and also prefabricated Socialist-era apartment

blocks (panelki). Numerous ancient Roman, Byzantine as well as medieval Bulgarian complexes are preserved in the centre with the

city. Such as the Next century Rotunda involving St. Henry, the surfaces of the Serdica fort and the partly preserved

Amphitheatre associated with Serdica.
Architectural styles in Sofia
The actual St. George Rotunda; some remains of Serdica may be seen in the forefront
The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences along with the yellow cobblestones throughout Oborishte
The Largo, a good example of Stalinist architecture
Company Park Sofia

After the Liberation Battle, knyaz Alexander Battenberg invited designers from Austria-Hungary in order to shape the brand new capital's

architectural visual appeal. Among the designers invited to be effective in Bulgaria ended up Friedrich Grünanger, Adolf Václav

Kolár, Viktor Rumpelmayer and others, whom designed the key public buildings needed by the newly-reestablished

Bulgarian authorities, as well as several houses for your country's top notch. Later, a lot of foreign-educated Bulgarian

architects additionally contributed. The particular architecture involving Sofia's centre is actually thus a variety of Neo-Baroque, Neo-Rococo, Neo-

Renaissance as well as Neoclassicism, with the Vienna Secession also later enjoying an important part, however it is mostly generally

Central Western european.

After the Second World War and the establishment of a Communist govt in Bulgaria in the mid 1940s, the executive line had been

substantially altered. Stalinist Gothic community buildings come about in the centre, notably the large government sophisticated

around The Largo, Vasil Levski Ground, the Cyril and also Methodius National Selection and others. Since the city grew outwards, the particular

then-new neighbourhoods had been dominated by numerous concrete podium blocks, prefabricated panel apartments or condos and examples

of Brutalist structures.

After the abolition involving Communism in 1989, Sofia has observed the construction of total business regions and

communities, as well as modern skryscraper-like glass-fronted office buildings, but additionally top-class residential

communities. Capital Ft Business Center will be the first skyscraper in Bulgaria using its 126 m and also 36 flooring surfaces.

However, get rid of the old management and centrally designed system in addition paved the way for topsy-turvy and unrestrained

building, which is constantly the present day.
Eco-friendly areas
Borisova gradina, most significant parks from the city.

Town has an substantial green buckle. Some of the communities constructed soon after 2000 that are densely built-up frequently

lack environmentally friendly spaces. You can find four primary parks - Borisova gradina in the metropolis centre and the Southern, Western and

North parks. Your Southern Playground was beneath reconstruction and is now the most effective parks in the country. Several other

scaled-down parks, among which the Area Garden and also the Doctors' Garden, come in central Sofia. The particular Vitosha Nature Car park

(the earliest national playground in the Balkans), which includes a large part of Vitosha mountain, covers an area involving

almost Two seventy km² and is entirely inside the city restrictions. Many of the municipality's residents consider weekly walks up the

mountain, and most do this at least a few times a year. You'll find bungalows in addition to several ski slopes on Vitosha,

allowing local people to take full advantage of the actual countryside as well as the mountains without needing to leave the town.
Observe also: Places of interest in Sofia along with List of churches in Sofia
Disciplines and amusement
Ivan Vazov National Theater

Sofia concentrates nearly all Bulgaria's leading executing arts troupes. Theater is by far the most popular form of

executing art, and theatrical venues are some of the most visited, 2nd only to cinemas. The earliest such institution is

the particular Ivan Vazov National Movie theater, which performs mainly established plays which is situated in abdominal muscles centre of the city. The

large number of more compact theatres, such as the Sfumato Theatrical Workshop, show both established and modern day plays.

The National Opera as well as Ballet can be a combined opera and ballet collective, set up in 1891. Nonetheless, it did not start

performances regularly until 1909. Several of Bulgaria's most famous operatic singers, such as Nicolai Ghiaurov as well as

Ghena Dimitrova, have made their particular first looks on the phase of the Countrywide Opera and Ballet. Bulgaria Hallway and Corridor 1

of the National Structure of Tradition regularly hold classical concerts, performed each by international orchestras and the Sofia

Philharmonic. The location has played out host to many world-famous musical functions including Prickle, Elton John, Madonna, George

Michael, Metallica, Tiesto, Kylie Minogue, Depeche Mode, Rammstein, Rihanna, Roxette as well as Lady Gaga.
The National Opera and also Ballet

Visible arts expositions will also be of interest. The nation's Art Gallery holds a collection of performs mostly through Bulgarian

authors, whilst the National Art gallery for İnternational Art shows exclusively overseas art, largely from India, Africa, China and

Europe. Its choices encompass diverse cultural products such as Ashanti Country sculptures, Buddhist fine art, Dutch Glowing Age

piece of art, works by Albrecht Dürer, Jean-Baptiste Greuze as well as Auguste Rodin, among others. The crypt of the Alexander Nevsky

house of worship holds an accumulation of Eastern Orthodox icons from the 9th on the 19th century.

Theatre is the most popular form of amusement. In recent years, cinematic venues happen to be concentrating within trade

centers and department stores, and impartial halls happen to be closed. Shopping mall of Sofia retains one of the biggest IMAX cinemas in Europe.

Many films are usually American productions, although Eu and domestic films are usually increasingly proven. Odeon (not the main

Odeon Cinemas archipelago) shows specifically European and also independent National films, as well as 20th century timeless classics.

Bulgaria's once thriving film business, concentrated within the Boyana Film dojos, has a break down period of rot away after 1990.

Family members revival of this marketplace began soon after 2001. As soon as the acquisition of Boyana Video by Nu Image, numerous moderately

productive productions have been shot in and around Sofia, such as The Deal, The Dark-colored Dahlia, Hitman and Conan the particular

Barbarian. The Nu Boyana Video studios have also hosted a number of the scenes for that Expendables 2.

The location houses a lot of cultural websites such as the Euro Cultural Institute, your Polish Ethnic Institute, the

Hungarian Institute, your Czech and the Slovak Cultural Institutes, the Italian Cultural Institute, the French Social

Institute, Goethe Institut, British Authorities, Instituto Cervantes, and the Available Society Institute, which regularly organise

momentary expositions of visible, sound along with literary functions artists from their respective nations.

Some of the greatest telecommunications organizations, TV and radio programs, newspapers, periodicals, and websites are primarily based

in Sofia, like the Bulgarian National Television, bTV and Nova TV. Top-circulation newspapers contain 24 Chasa, Trud

as well as Kapital Daily.
The Alexander Nevsky House of worship

Sofia is one of the most used tourist destinations within Bulgaria alongside coast and mountain resorts. Amongst its

highlights is the Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, one of the symbols of Bulgaria, constructed within the late 1800s. It

occupies a place of 3,A hundred and seventy square metre distances (34,100 sq ft) and can hold 10,000 people. The city is additionally known for your Boyana

Church, the UNESCO World Heritage site. The particular SS. Cyril as well as Methodius National Catalogue houses the largest national selection

of guides and documents (1,714,211 guides and some 6 000 0000 other files) and is Bulgaria's most well-known cultural


Sofia holds Bulgaria's biggest museum series, which attract travelers and students for functional studies. The National

Historical Memorial in Boyana area has a huge collection of greater than 650,000 historical goods dating via Prehistory to

the modern era, although simply 10,Thousand of them are completely displayed because of the lack of place. Smaller choices of

goods related mainly to the reputation Sofia are in the nation's Archaeological Public, a former mosque found between the

edifices from the National Standard bank and the Presidency. Two normal sciences museums * the Natural History Museum as well as the Earth

and Man : display minerals, animal types (alive and taxidermic) and unusual materials. The Ethnographic Museum and also the

National Art gallery of Military services History are also places of interest, holding large collections of Bulgarian folk costumes along with

armaments, respectively.

Vitosha Boulevard, also called Vitoshka, has several fashion shops and high-class goods merchants. Sofia's geographic

spot, in the foothills in the weekend retire Vitosha mountain, even more adds to the town's specific atmosphere.
A short time from the Timeless derby of Bulgarian football * CSKA (red) towards Levski (blue) throughout February This year

A large number of sporting activities clubs are usually based in the metropolis. During the Communist period most sports clubs focused on all-round

sporting advancement, therefore CSKA, Levski as well as Slavia are dominating not only in football, however in many other team sports as

well. Golf ball and volley ball also have robust traditions in Sofia. A noteworthy local basketball team is actually twice Western

Champions Cup finalist Lukoil Akademik. The Bulgarian Volleyball Federation is the earth's second-oldest, and it has been an

event tournament prepared by the BVF in Sofia that convinced the International Olympic Panel to include

beach ball as an olympic activity in 1957. Tennis is increasingly popular within the city. At the moment there are some 10

tennis court docket complexes from the city such as one started by ex- WTA top-ten athlete Magdalena Maleeva.

Sofia put on host winter months Olympic Games throughout 1992 as well as in 1994, coming 2nd and 3rd respectively. The city have also been an

applicant for the 2014 Wintertime Olympics, yet was not picked as choice. In addition, Sofia organised Eurobasket 1957 and also

the 1961 and 1977 Summer season Universiades, as well as the 1983 and 1989 winter updates. In 2012, it's going to host the FIVB World

Category finals.
Armeets Arena

The town is home to numerous large athletics venues, like the 43,000-seat Vasil Levski Countrywide Stadium that hosts

worldwide football matches, as well as Lokomotiv Stadium, the key venue regarding outdoor audio concerts. Armeets İndustry holds

a lot of indoor events and has any capacity up to 19,1000 people determined by its make use of. The place was inaugurated on July Thirty,

2011, along with the first function it managed was a helpful volleyball go with between Bulgaria as well as Serbia. There are two roller skating

complexes - the Winter Development of Sporting activities with a capability of 4,000 and the Slavia Winter season Stadium using a capacity of 2,000,

both containing a pair of rinks each. The velodrome with Five,000 car seats in the city's central playground is currently going through

renovation. İn addition there are various other sporting activities complexes in the city which usually belong to corporations other than football

golf equipment, such as that regarding the National Sports activities Academy, the actual Bulgarian Academy regarding Sciences, or the ones from different universities.

There are more when compared with fifteen floating around complexes inside the city, many outdoor. Nearly all of these were made

as competitors venues and thus have seats facilities for many hundred men and women.

There are two courses just to the east involving Sofia - within Elin Pelin (St Sofia club) and in Ihtiman (Oxygen Sofia club), as well as a

horseriding membership (St George club).

According to 2011 data, the city has a populace of 1,204,685 and the whole Capital Municipality of just one,291,591.

The ratio of females per A single,000 adult men was A single,102. The start rate per 1000 folks was A dozen.3 for every mille and continuously increasing inside

the last Five years, the loss of life rate attaining 12.One particular per mille and also decreasing. The natural growth rate through 2009 had been 0.2 per

mille, the very first positive rate of growth in practically 20 years. Your considerable immigration to the capital from not as good regions

of the country, as well as urbanisation, are some of the other reasons for that increase in Sofia's populace. 4.8-10 people of

every one 500 were betrothed in 2009 (simply heterosexual marriage is possible in Bulgaria) as well as the infant fatality rate rate

has been 5.6 per One,000, along from 16.9 in 1980.

According to the This year census, Sofia's populace was made from 96.4% racial Bulgarians; among small section communities, with regards to

18,3 hundred (1.6%) formally identified them selves as Roma, Half a dozen,500 (0.6%) as Turkish and 1.4% belonged with other ethnic

groups or didn't self-declare.

The joblessness is lower when compared to other parts of the united states - 2.45% of the energetic population in 1999 and declining,

compared to 7.25% for your of Bulgaria as of 1 This summer 2007. The big share of unemployed people with higher

education and learning, 27% as compared to 7% for your country, is a characteristic function of the capital.

Sofia was reported capital throughout 1879. One year later, in 1880, it had been the fifth-largest city in the country following Plovdiv,

Varna, Ruse and Shumen. Plovdiv remained probably the most populous Bulgarian town until 1892 whenever Sofia took charge.
Company Park Sofia

Sofia could be the economic coronary heart of Bulgaria and residential to most significant Bulgarian and worldwide companies functioning in the

nation, as well as the Bulgarian National Bank along with the Bulgarian Stock Exchange. In 2008, the average for every capita annual

income ended up being 4,572 leva ($3,479). The strongest sectors from the city's economic system in terms of yearly production are usually

manufacturing ($5.Five bln.), metallurgy ($1.84 bln.), electrical energy, gas and water offer ($1.6 bln.) as well as food and also beverages

($778 mln.).
The actual Mall, the largest shoping mall from the Balkans

After Globe War II and the era regarding industrialisation under socialism, the city and its encompassing areas extended rapidly

and became the most heavily industrialised location of the country. The particular influx regarding workers using their company parts of the country

grew to be so intense that a constraint policy ended up being imposed, and also residing in the capital was only probable after obtaining

Sofianite citizenship. However, after the political alterations in 1989, this type of citizenship was taken off.

Increasingly, Sofia is becoming a good outsourcing place to go for multinational firms, among them IBM, Hewlett-Packard,

SAP, Siemens, Software AG. Bulgaria Oxygen, the national airline of Bulgaria, has its own head office around the

grounds regarding Sofia Airport.

Getting the club 2007 Sofia experienced rapid economic growth. In 08, apartment prices increased significantly, with a rate of growth

of 30%. In Last year, prices droped by 26%.
Transportation and infrastructure
Public tour bus near Sofia Airport terminal

With its creating infrastructure and also strategic location, Sofia is a significant hub with regard to international railway and automobile

transport. About three of the 10 Trans-European Transport Passages cross the location: 4, 7 and 15. All main types of transportation

(except water) are represented in the city. It is home to ten railway programs, the biggest that is the Central

Train Station. Just next to oahu is the new Central Bus Place. A number of other shuttle stations enable interurban and

global trips through different parts of the city. The Sofia İnternational airport with its brand new second terminal, finished inside 2006,

taken care of some Three.47 million passengers this season.

Public transport will be well-developed with shuttle (2380 km circle), tram (308 km network, and trolleybus (193 kilometers

network, collections running in all areas of the town, although some of the cars are in an undesirable condition. Your

Sofia Metro became operational throughout 1998, and today has a couple of lines and 27 programs. As of The coming year, the system has 31 kilometers

of monitor. Six brand-new stations ended up opened during 2009, two a lot more in 04 2012, and also eleven more in June 2012. Design works

around the extension of the first range are on-going and it is likely to reach the airport by 2014. One third line is at present

in the overdue stages involving planning and it's also expected that it is construction starts off in 2014. This specific line will certainly complete the actual

proposed subway system involving three outlines with about Sixty five km associated with lines. The grasp plan for the particular Sofia Metro includes three

lines with a total of Sixty three stations. In recent times the marshrutka, a private passenger vehicle, began providing fixed routes

and turned out an efficient and popular way of transport when you are faster compared to public transport yet cheaper than airport taxis. As of

2005 these vans numbered 368 and also serviced Twenty four lines around the city and suburbs. You'll find around 12,000 taxi cabs

functioning in the area. Low fares when compared to other Countries in europe, make airport taxis affordable along with popular among

many of the area population.
Tsarigradsko shose, one of the busiest boulevards in Sofia

Private vehicle ownership has exploded rapidly in the 1990s; over 1,000,000 vehicles were signed up in Sofia following 2002.

The city has the 4th-highest amount of automobiles for every capita from the European Union at 546.4 vehicles per 1,000 men and women.

The town was famous for minor and also cosmetic repairs and many pavement are in an undesirable condition. This is noticeably

transforming in the past a long time. There are different boulevards and streets in the town with a increased amount of targeted traffic than

other folks. These include Tsarigradsko shose, Cherni Vrah, Bulgaria, Slivnitsa along with Todor Aleksandrov boulevards, as well as the

town's ring road, where long chains regarding cars are generally formed with peak hours and also traffic jams arise regularly. Consequently

traffic along with air pollution issues have become much more serious and get regular critique in neighborhood media. The extension regarding

the undercover system is expected to alleviate the town's immense site visitors problems. As per recent figures, the last

enlargement of the subterranean system provides eleviated the air air pollution in the area by 20% and lowered the particular traffic accidents

by 15%.

Sofia features a unique, huge combined high temperature and electrical power (CHP) plant. Almost the entire town (900,000 households and 5,900

companies) is actually centrally heated, making use of residual warmth from electrical energy generation (Three,000 MW) and gas- and oil-fired heating system

furnaces; total heat capacity is Some,640 MW. The heat syndication piping circle is 900 km lengthy and consists 14,000

substations and 15,000 warmed up buildings.
Students exercising with gadgets at the Technological University associated with Sofia

There are Sixteen universities inside Sofia. The St . Clement of Ohrid University or college of Sofia, often regarded as essentially the most prestigious

college of Bulgaria, began in 1888 and expanded inside the 1950s. The particular university's building was built between

1924 and 1934 with the monetary support of brothers Evlogi Georgiev and Hristo Georgiev. The university or college enrolls 14,000

students every year.

Other major higher education organizations are the Country wide Academy associated with Arts, the University associated with National and World

Economic system, the Complex University of Sofia, Sofia Medical College, Rakovski Defence along with Staff University, and New Bulgarian


Secondary education corporations are numerous and include vocational along with language colleges. The "elite" secondary language

educational institutions provide education in a chosen foreign language. Such as the First British Language University, Sofia High

University of Mathematics, 91st German Language School, 164th Spanish Language School, and also 9th French Language İnstitution. Some of

these people provide a words certificate about graduation, while the 9th France Language College has swap programs which has a

number of lycées inside France as well as Switzerland, for example the Parisian Collège-lycée Jacques-Decour. Zlatarski International

College from 2004, became the first school throughout Bulgaria to offer the International Baccalaureate. Your American Higher education of

Sofia began in 1860 and quite often regarded as the particular oldest National academic establishment outside the United States.

Other institutions of nationwide significance, like the Bulgarian Academy associated with Sciences (BAS) and the SS. Cyril and

Methodius Nationwide Library are located in Sofia. BAS is the centrepiece of medical research in Bulgaria, employing a lot more

than 4,500 experts in various institutions, including the Bulgarian Space Agency.