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Mumbai /m?m'ba?/, previously Bombay, is the capital town from the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is easily the most populous city in India, plus the fourth most populous city within the environment, having a whole metropolitan spot population of approximately 20.5 million. Along with the neighbouring city areas, which include the metropolitan areas of Navi Mumbai and Thane, it's certainly one of one of the most populous urban regions inside the environment. Mumbai lies on the west coastline of India and it has a deep natural harbour. In 2009, Mumbai was named an Alpha planet city. It is usually the wealthiest town in India, and has the highest GDP of any metropolis in South, West or Central Asia.
The seven islands that arrived to constitute Mumbai were being dwelling to communities of fishing colonies. For centuries, the islands ended up below the control of successive indigenous empires prior to being ceded towards the Portuguese and subsequently to the British East India Corporation. Through the mid-18th century, Mumbai was reshaped because of the Hornby Vellard undertaking, which undertook the reclamation of your spot involving the 7 constituent islands in the sea. Finished by 1845, the project in addition to building of key roads and railways transformed Bombay into a main seaport over the Arabian Sea. Financial and educational enhancement characterised the city throughout the 19th century. It grew to become a robust foundation for the Indian independence movement in the course of the early twentieth century. When India became unbiased in 1947, the town was incorporated into Bombay Condition. In 1960, adhering to the Samyukta Maharashtra motion, a completely new condition of Maharashtra was made with Bombay as cash. The city was renamed Mumbai in 1996, the name getting derived from your Koli goddess-Mumbadevi.
Mumbai would be the business and entertainment cash of India, it is usually certainly one of the world's prime ten centres of commerce with regard to worldwide economic move, making 5% of India's GDP, and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India (Mumbai Port Believe in & JNPT), and 70% of funds transactions to India's economy. Town houses important fiscal institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and also the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations. It can also be household to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like BARC, NPCL, IREL, TIFR, AERB, AECI, and the Department of Atomic Energy. The city also houses India's Hindi (Bollywood) and Marathi film and television industry. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India and, in turn, make town a melting pot of many communities and cultures.
The title Mumbai is derived from Mumba or Maha-Amba-the name from the Koli goddess Mumbadevi-and Aai, "mother" inside the language of Marathi.
The oldest known names for the town are Kakamuchee and Galajunkja; these are sometimes still used. Ali Muhammad Khan, in the Mirat-i-Ahmedi (1507) referred to the town as Manbai. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the identify Bombaim, in his Lendas da Índia ("Legends of India"). This identify possibly originated as the Old Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", and Bombaim is still commonly used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer on the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi.
The temple of local Hindu goddess Mumbadevi, after whom the town of Mumbai derives its identify
Other variations recorded from the 16th plus the 17th hundreds of years include: Mombayn (1525), Bombay (1538), Bombain (1552), Bombaym (1552), Monbaym (1554), Mombaim (1563), Mombaym (1644), Bambaye (1666), Bombaiim (1666), Bombeye (1676), and Boon Bay (1690). After the British gained possession with the city while in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was officially anglicised as Bombay.
Because of the late 20th century, the city was known as Mumbai or Mambai to Marathi language, Konkani, Gujarati, Kannada and Sindhi speakers and as Bambai in Hindi, Persian and Urdu. The English name was officially changed to Mumbai in November 1995. This arrived at the insistence of your Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party that had just won the Maharashtra state elections and mirrored similar identify changes across the country. They argued that "Bombay" was a corrupted English version of "Mumbai" and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule. The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity while in the Maharashtra region. However, the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and Indians from other locations as well. However, mentions on the city from the title other than Mumbai have been controversial, resulting in emotional outbursts sometimes of a violently political nature.
A widespread popular etymology of Bombay holds that it was derived from a Portuguese identify meaning "good bay". This is based about the facts that bom is Portuguese for "good" and baía (or the archaic spelling bahia) means "bay". However, this literal translation would have been incorrect in grammatical gender, as bom is masculine, while baia is feminine; a correct Portuguese rendering of "good bay" would be boa ba(h)ia. Having said this, baim is an archaic, masculine word for "little bay".
Portuguese scholar José Pedro Machado in his Dicionário Onomástico Etimológico da Língua Portuguesa (1981; "Portuguese Dictionary of Onomastics and Etymology"), seems to reject the "Bom Bahia" hypothesis, suggesting that the presence of a bay was a coincidence (rather than a basis from the toponym) and led to a misconception, that the noun (bahia; "bay") was an integral part of your Portuguese identify.
Main articles: History of Mumbai and Timeline of Mumbai history
A white Buddhist stupa.
Kanheri Caves served as a centre of Buddhism in Western India during ancient times
Mumbai is built on what was once an archipelago of seven islands: Bombay Island, Parel, Mazagaon, Mahim, Colaba, Worli, and Old Woman's Island (also known as Little Colaba). It is not exactly known when these islands ended up first inhabited. Pleistocene sediments found alongside the coastal spots around Kandivali in northern Mumbai suggest that the islands have been inhabited since the Stone Age. Perhaps at the beginning on the Common era (2000 years ago), or possibly earlier, they arrived to be occupied with the Koli fishing community.
In the third century BCE, the islands formed part in the Maurya Empire, through its expansion inside the south, ruled from the Buddhist emperor, Ashoka of Magadha. The Kanheri Caves in Borivali had been excavated during the mid-third century BCE, and served as an important centre of Buddhism in Western India throughout ancient Times. Town then was known as Heptanesia (Ancient Greek: A Cluster of Seven Islands) towards the Greek geographer Ptolemy in 150 CE.
Concerning the second century BCE and ninth century CE, the islands came underneath the handle of successive indigenous dynasties: Satavahanas, Western Kshatrapas, Abhiras, Vakatakas, Kalachuris, Konkan Mauryas, Chalukyas and Rashtrakutas, in advance of staying ruled by the Silhara dynasty from 810 to 1260. Some in the oldest edifices inside the city built all through this period are, Jogeshwari Caves (between 520 to 525), Elephanta Caves (involving the sixth to seventh century), Walkeshwar Temple (10th century), and Banganga Tank (12th century).
King Bhimdev founded his kingdom while in the region inside the late 13th century, and established his funds in Mahikawati (present day Mahim). The Pathare Prabhus, one of the earliest known settlers in the town, ended up brought to Mahikawati from Saurashtra in Gujarat around 1298 by Bhimdev. The Delhi Sultanate annexed the islands in 1347-48, and controlled it till 1407. İn the course of this time, the islands have been administered because of the Muslim Governors of Gujarat, who were being appointed by the Delhi Sultanate.
The Haji Ali Dargah was built in 1431, when Mumbai was beneath the rule on the Gujarat Sultanate
The islands had been later governed via the impartial Gujarat Sultanate, which was established in 1407. The Sultanate's patronage led towards the design of many mosques, prominent getting the Haji Ali Dargah in Worli, built in honour of the Muslim saint Haji Ali in 1431. From 1429 to 1431, the islands were a source of contention amongst the Gujarat Sultanate as well as the Bahamani Sultanate of Deccan. In 1493, Bahadur Khan Gilani of your Bahamani Sultanate attempted to conquer the islands, but was defeated.
Main articles: History of Bombay less than Portuguese rule (1534-1661) and History of Bombay underneath British rule
The Mughal Empire, founded in 1526, was the dominant power from the Indian subcontinent in the mid-16th century. Growing apprehensive from the power with the Mughal emperor Humayun, Sultan Bahadur Shah on the Gujarat Sultanate was obliged to sign the Treaty of Bassein using the Portuguese Empire on 23 December 1534. According to the treaty, the 7 islands of Bombay, the nearby strategic town of Bassein and its dependencies ended up offered on the Portuguese. The territories were being later surrendered on twenty five October 1535. The Portuguese had been actively involved inside the foundation and growth of their Roman Catholic religious orders in Bombay.
Some with the oldest Catholic churches inside the metropolis such as the St. Michael's Church at Mahim (1534), St. John the Baptist Church at Andheri (1579), St. Andrew's Church at Bandra (1580), and Gloria Church at Byculla (1632), date with the Portuguese era. On 11 May 1661, the marriage treaty of Charles II of England and Catherine of Braganza, daughter of King John IV of Portugal, placed the islands in possession from the British Empire, as part of Catherine's dowry to Charles. However, Salsette, Bassein, Mazagaon, Parel, Worli, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala still remained below Portuguese possession. From 1665 to 1666, the British managed to acquire Mahim, Sion, Dharavi, and Wadala.
These islands were in turn leased to your British East India Firm in 1668 for a sum of Ł10 per annum via the Royal Charter of 27 March 1668. The inhabitants quickly rose from 10,000 in 1661, to 60,000 in 1675. The islands were being subsequently attacked by Yakut Khan, the Siddi admiral with the Mughal Empire, in October 1672, Rickloffe van Goen, the Governor-General of Dutch India on twenty February 1673, and Siddi admiral Sambal on ten October 1673.
In 1687, the British East India Business transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually grew to become the headquarters of the Bombay Presidency. Next the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India. Towards the end in the 17th century, the islands again suffered incursions from Yakut Khan in 1689-90. The Portuguese presence ended in Bombay when the Marathas below Peshwa Baji Rao I captured Salsette in 1737, and Bassein in 1739.
A view of Mumbai, c. 1905
Via the middle of the 18th century, Bombay began to grow right into a main trading town, and received a huge influx of migrants from across India. Later, the British occupied Salsette on 28 December 1774. Along with the Treaty of Surat (1775), the British formally gained management of Salsette and Bassein, resulting within the First Anglo-Maratha War. The British have been able to secure Salsette from your Marathas without violence through the Treaty of Purandar (1776), and later through the Treaty of Salbai (1782), signed to settle the outcome on the First Anglo-Maratha War.
Ships in Bombay Harbour (c. 1731). Bombay emerged as a significant trading town in the mid-18th century.
From 1782 onwards, the town was reshaped with large-scale civil engineering projects aimed at merging all the 7 islands into a single amalgamated mass. This task, known as Hornby Vellard, was accomplished by 1784. In 1817, the British East India Firm beneath Mountstuart Elphinstone defeated Baji Rao II, the last of your Maratha Peshwa inside the Battle of Khadki. Subsequent his defeat, almost the whole of your Deccan arrived beneath British suzerainty, and had been incorporated in Bombay Presidency. The success of your British campaign inside the Deccan witnessed the freedom of Bombay from all attacks by native powers.
By 1845, the 7 islands have been coalesced into a single landmass through the Hornby Vellard venture via large scale land reclamation. On 16 April 1853, India's first passenger railway line was established, connecting Bombay into the neighbouring town of Thane. Through the American Civil War (1861-1865), town became the world's chief cotton trading market, resulting in a boom during the economy that subsequently enhanced the city's stature.
The opening in the Suez Canal in 1869 transformed Bombay into among the largest seaports within the Arabian Sea. In September 1896, Bombay was hit by a bubonic plague epidemic where the death toll was estimated at 1,900 people per week. About 850,000 people fled Bombay along with the textile industry was adversely affected. As the funds with the Bombay Presidency, it witnessed the Indian independence movement, while using the Quit India Motion in 1942 along with the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny in 1946 currently being its most notable events.
Main article: History of Bombay in Independent India
A stone statue of torch-bearers as seen at night. A fountain that has a white foundation is during the background
The Hutatma Chowk memorial, built to honour the martyrs of the Samyukta Maharashtra movement. (Flora Fountain is on its left in the background.)
After India's independence in 1947, the territory on the Bombay Presidency retained by India was restructured into Bombay Condition. The area of Bombay Condition increased, after several erstwhile princely states that joined the Indian union ended up integrated into the point out. Subsequently, town turned the money of Bombay Condition. On April 1950, Municipal limits of Bombay were expanded by merging the Bombay Suburban District and Bombay Town to form Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation.
The Samyukta Maharashtra motion to create a separate Maharashtra point out such as Bombay was at its height from the 1950s. In the Lok Sabha discussions in 1955, the Congress party demanded that the city be constituted as an autonomous city-state. The States Reorganisation Committee recommended a bilingual point out for Maharashtra-Gujarat with Bombay as its capital in its 1955 report. Bombay Citizens' Committee, an advocacy group of leading Gujarati industrialists lobbied for Bombay's unbiased status.
Subsequent protests during the motion in which 105 people were being killed by police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines on 1 May 1960. Gujarati-speaking places of Bombay Point out were being partitioned into the point out of Gujarat. Maharashtra Condition with Bombay as its money was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking parts of Bombay Condition, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed involving them. As a memorial to your martyrs with the Samyukta Maharashtra motion, Flora Fountain was renamed as Hutatma Chowk (Martyr's Square), and a memorial was erected.
The adhering to decades saw massive expansion in the town and its suburbs. In the late 1960s, Nariman Point and Cuffe Parade were reclaimed and developed. The Bombay Metropolitan Region İmprovement Authority (BMRDA) was set up on 26 January 1975 from the Government of Maharashtra as an apex body for planning and co-ordination of improvement activities from the Bombay metropolitan region. In August 1979, a sister township of New Bombay was founded by Metropolis and Industrial Advancement Corporation (CIDCO) across Thane and Raigad districts to help the dispersal and control of Bombay's populace. Textile industry in Bombay largely disappeared after the massive 1982 Great Bombay Textile Strike, in which nearly 250,000 workers in more than 50 textile mills went on strike. Mumbai's defunct cotton mills have since become the focus of intense redevelopment.
The Jawaharlal Nehru Port, which currently handles 55-60% of India's containerised cargo, was commissioned on 26 May 1989 at Nhava Sheva having a view to de-congest Bombay Harbour and to serve as a hub port for the metropolis. The geographical limits of Greater Bombay ended up coextensive with municipal limits of Greater Bombay. On 1 October 1990, the Greater Bombay district was bifurcated to form two revenue districts namely, Bombay Metropolis and Bombay Suburban, though they were being administered by same Municipal Administration.
The past two decades have seen an increase in violence within the hitherto largely peaceful metropolis. Subsequent the demolition of your Babri Masjid in Ayodhya, the city was rocked from the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1992-93 in which more than 1,000 people were being killed. On 12 March 1993, a series of 13 co-ordinated bombings at several city landmarks by Islamic extremists and the Bombay underworld resulted in 257 deaths and over 700 injuries. In 2006, 209 people were being killed and over 700 injured when seven bombs exploded over the city's commuter trains. In 2008, a series of ten coordinated attacks by armed terrorists for three days resulted in 173 deaths, 308 injuries, and severe damage to a couple of heritage landmarks and prestigious hotels. The blasts that occurred at the Opera House, Zaveri Bazaar, and Dadar on 13 July 2011 have been the latest during the series of terrorist attacks in Mumbai.
Today, Mumbai will be the commercial money of India and has evolved right into a world monetary hub. For several decades it has been the property of India's main economical services, and a focus for both infrastructure progress and private investment. From becoming an ancient fishing community and a colonial centre of trade, Mumbai has become South Asia's largest metropolis and property of your world's most prolific film industry.
Main article: Geography of Mumbai
Mumbai is on a narrow peninsula around the southwest of Salsette Island, which lies concerning the Arabian Sea for the west, Thane Creek to your east, and Vasai Creek on the north. Mumbai's suburban district occupies most with the island. Navi Mumbai is east of Thane Creek, as well as the Thane District is north of Vasai Creek.
Mumbai consists of two revenue districts
Mumbai metropolitan region, Landsat 5 satellite image, 2011-01-30
Mumbai consists of two distinct regions: Mumbai Metropolis district and Mumbai Suburban district, which form two separate revenue districts of Maharashtra. The town district region can be commonly referred to as the Island City or South Mumbai. The total region of Mumbai is 603.4 km2 (233 sq mi). Of this, the island metropolis spans 67.79 km2 (26 sq mi), while the suburban district spans 370 km2 (143 sq mi), together accounting for 437.71 km2 (169 sq mi) below the administration of Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC). The remaining place belongs to Defence, Mumbai Port Belief, Atomic Energy Commission and Borivali National Park, which are out of the jurisdiction in the BMC.
Mumbai lies at the mouth of your Ulhas River to the western coastline of India, during the coastal region known as the Konkan. It sits on Salsette Island, partially shared together with the Thane district. Mumbai is bounded because of the Arabian Sea to your west. Many parts on the metropolis lie just above sea level, with elevations ranging from ten m (33 ft) to 15 m (49 ft); the town has an average elevation of 14 m (46 ft). Northern Mumbai (Salsette) is hilly, along with the best point during the city is 450 m (1,476 ft) at Salsette inside the Powai-Kanheri ranges. Sanjay Gandhi National Park (Borivali National Park) is located partly while in the Mumbai suburban district, and partly within the Thane district, and it extends over an spot of 103.09 km2 (39.80 sq mi).
Apart through the Bhatsa Dam, there are six important lakes that supply water to the town: Vihar, Lower Vaitarna, Upper Vaitarna, Tulsi, Tansa and Powai. Tulsi Lake and Vihar Lake are located in Borivili National Park, within the city's limits. The supply from Powai lake, also within town limits, is used only for agricultural and industrial purposes. Three small rivers, the Dahisar River, Poinsar (or Poisar) and Ohiwara (or Oshiwara) originate within the park, while the polluted Mithi River originates from Tulsi Lake and gathers water overflowing from Vihar and Powai Lakes. The coastline from the town is indented with numerous creeks and bays, stretching from Thane creek on the eastern to Madh Marve within the western front. The eastern coast of Salsette Island is covered with large mangrove swamps, rich in biodiversity, while the western coast is mostly sandy and rocky.
Soil cover inside the town region is predominantly sandy due to its proximity for the sea. In the suburbs, the soil cover is largely alluvial and loamy. The underlying rock on the region is composed of black Deccan basalt flows, and their acidic and basic variants dating back towards the late Cretaceous and early Eocene eras. Mumbai sits on a seismically active zone owing towards the presence of 23 fault lines while in the vicinity. The region is classified as a Seismic Zone III region, which means an earthquake of up to magnitude 6.5 on the Richter-scale may be expected.
The average temperature ranges involving 23 °C (73 °F) in January to 30 °C (86 °F) in May. Rainfall is at or near zero from November through May, then quickly rises to a peak of about 600 mm (23.62 in) in July, falling back more gradually.
Average temperature and precipitation in Mumbai
Main article: Climate of Mumbai
Mumbai incorporates a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate beneath the Köppen climate classification, with 7 months of dryness and peak of rains in July. The cooler season from December to February is followed by the summer season from March to June. The period from June to about the end of September constitutes the south-west monsoon season, and October and November form the post-monsoon season.
Concerning June and September, the south west monsoon rains lash the city. Pre-monsoon showers are received in May. Occasionally, north-east monsoon showers occur in October and November. The maximum annual rainfall ever recorded was 3,452 mm (136 in) for 1954. The highest rainfall recorded in a single day was 944 mm (37 in) on 26 July 2005. The average total annual rainfall is 2,146.6 mm (85 in) for the Island Metropolis, and 2,457 mm (97 in) to the suburbs.
The average annual temperature is 27.2 °C (81 °F), and also the average annual precipitation is 2,167 mm (85 in). In the Island Metropolis, the average maximum temperature is 31.2 °C (88 °F), while the average minimum temperature is 23.7 °C (75 °F). In the suburbs, the daily mean maximum temperature range from 29.1 °C (84 °F) to 33.3 °C (92 °F), while the daily mean minimum temperature ranges from 16.3 °C (61 °F) to 26.2 °C (79 °F). The record high is 40.2 °C (104 °F) on 28 March 1982, as well as the record low is 7.4 °C (45 °F) on 27 January 1962.